File:  [LON-CAPA] / doc / help /
Revision 1.12: download - view: text, annotated - select for diffs
Wed Mar 16 21:31:27 2005 UTC (17 years, 8 months ago) by www
Branches: MAIN
CVS tags: version_2_9_X, version_2_9_99_0, version_2_9_1, version_2_9_0, version_2_8_X, version_2_8_99_1, version_2_8_99_0, version_2_8_2, version_2_8_1, version_2_8_0, version_2_7_X, version_2_7_99_1, version_2_7_99_0, version_2_7_1, version_2_7_0, version_2_6_X, version_2_6_99_1, version_2_6_99_0, version_2_6_3, version_2_6_2, version_2_6_1, version_2_6_0, version_2_5_X, version_2_5_99_1, version_2_5_99_0, version_2_5_2, version_2_5_1, version_2_5_0, version_2_4_X, version_2_4_99_0, version_2_4_2, version_2_4_1, version_2_4_0, version_2_3_X, version_2_3_99_0, version_2_3_2, version_2_3_1, version_2_3_0, version_2_2_X, version_2_2_99_1, version_2_2_99_0, version_2_2_2, version_2_2_1, version_2_2_0, version_2_1_X, version_2_1_99_3, version_2_1_99_2, version_2_1_99_1, version_2_1_99_0, version_2_1_3, version_2_1_2, version_2_1_1, version_2_1_0, version_2_12_X, version_2_11_X, version_2_11_4_uiuc, version_2_11_4_msu, version_2_11_4, version_2_11_3_uiuc, version_2_11_3_msu, version_2_11_3, version_2_11_2_uiuc, version_2_11_2_msu, version_2_11_2_educog, version_2_11_2, version_2_11_1, version_2_11_0_RC3, version_2_11_0_RC2, version_2_11_0_RC1, version_2_11_0, version_2_10_X, version_2_10_1, version_2_10_0_RC2, version_2_10_0_RC1, version_2_10_0, version_2_0_X, version_2_0_99_1, version_2_0_2, version_2_0_1, version_2_0_0, version_1_99_3, version_1_99_2, version_1_99_1_tmcc, version_1_99_1, version_1_99_0_tmcc, version_1_99_0, version_1_3_3, loncapaMITrelate_1, language_hyphenation_merge, language_hyphenation, bz6209-base, bz6209, HEAD, GCI_3, GCI_2, GCI_1, BZ4492-merge, BZ4492-feature_horizontal_radioresponse, BZ4492-feature_Support_horizontal_radioresponse, BZ4492-Support_horizontal_radioresponse
Bug #4015: Inserted garbage characters into TeX file for every new subsection.


# The LearningOnline Network with CAPA
# Converts a texxml file into a single tex file
# Copyright Michigan State University Board of Trustees
# This file is part of the LearningOnline Network with CAPA (LON-CAPA).
# LON-CAPA is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
# LON-CAPA is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# GNU General Public License for more details.
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with LON-CAPA; if not, write to the Free Software
# Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
# /home/httpd/html/adm/gpl.txt
# 7-16-2002 Jeremy Bowers

use strict;
use HTML::TokeParser;
use GDBM_File;
use File::Temp;

# accept texxml document on standard in
my $p = HTML::TokeParser->new( $ARGV[0] );
my $dirprefix = "../../loncom/html/adm/help/tex/";

my $include_filenames = ($ARGV[1] eq '--with-filenames');
# Make myself a temp dir for processing POD
my $tmpdir = File::Temp::tempdir('loncapahelpgenXXXXXXX', TMPDIR => 1);

# Print the header
open (LATEX_FILE, $dirprefix . "Latex_Header.tex");
print <LATEX_FILE>;

sub escape_latex {
    my ($string)=@_;
    $string=~s/([^\\]|^)(\~|\^)/$1\\$2\\strut /g;
    $string=~s/(>|<)/\\ensuremath\{$1\}/g; #more or less
#    $string=&Apache::lonprintout::character_chart($string);
    # any & or # leftover should be safe to just escape
    return $string;

while (my $token = $p->get_token())
    my $type = $token->[0];
    if ($type eq 'S') {
	my $tag = $token->[1];
	my $attr = $token->[2];
	if ($tag eq 'section') {
	    my $title = $attr->{'name'};
	    print "\\section{".&escape_latex($title)."}\n\n";

	if ($tag eq 'subsection') {
	    my $title = $attr->{'name'};
	    print "\\subsection{".&escape_latex($title)."}\n\n";

	if ($tag eq 'subsubsection') {
	    my $title = $attr->{'name'};
	    print "\\subsubsection{".&escape_latex($title)."}\n\n";

	if ($tag eq 'file') {
	    my $file = $attr->{'name'};
	    open (LATEX_FILE, $dirprefix . $file) or 
		($! = 1, die "Can't find LaTeX file $dirprefix/$file; terminating build.");
	    if ($include_filenames) {
		print "\\textrm{File: \\bf ".&escape_latex($file)."}\\\\\n";
	    print <LATEX_FILE>;
	    print "\n\n";

	if ($tag eq 'tex') {
	    print "\n\n";
	    print $attr->{'content'};
	    print "\n\n";

	if ($tag eq 'pod') {
	    my $file = $attr->{'file'};
	    my $section = $attr->{'section'};	    
	    if (!defined($section)) { $section = ''; }
	    else { 
		$section = "-section '$section'";
	    my $h1level = $attr->{'h1level'};
	    if (!defined($h1level)) { $h1level = '2'; }
	    $file = '../../loncom/' . $file;
	    my $filename = substr($file, rindex($file, '/') + 1);
	    system ("cp $file $tmpdir\n");
	    my $latexFile;
	    if (index($filename, '.') == -1) {
		# pod2latex *insists* that either the extension of the
		# file be .pl|.pm|.pod or that it be executable. Some
		# extension-less files like "lonsql' are none-of-the-above.
		system ("cd $tmpdir; mv $filename $");
		$filename .= ".pm";
		print STDERR $filename . "\n";
	    system ("cd $tmpdir; pod2latex -h1level $h1level $section $filename\n");
	    $latexFile = substr($filename, 0, rindex($filename, '.')) . '.tex';
	    open LATEX_FILE, $tmpdir . '/' . $latexFile or
		($! = 1, die "Latex file $latexFile not found while trying to use pod2latex, ".
		 "terminating build");
	    # pod2latex inserts \labels and \indexs for every section,
	    # which is horrible because the section names tend to get
	    # reused a lot. This filters those out, so we need to do
	    # create our own indexes.
	    for (<LATEX_FILE>) {
		$_ =~ s/\\([^{]*)(section|paragraph)(\*?)\{([^\\]+)\\label\{[^\\]+\}\\index\{([^\\]+)\}\}/\\\1\2\3\{\4\}/g;
		print $_;
	    print "\n\n";

# Print out the footer.
open (LATEX_FILE, $dirprefix . "Latex_Footer.tex");
print <LATEX_FILE>;

# Remove the temp directory
system ("rm -rf $tmpdir");



=head1 NAME - core script that drives the help file assembly


LON-CAPA's help system is based on assembling various pieces into
LaTeX files for conversion into printed documents. The various pieces
can also be used as online help.


X<help system, overview>LON-CAPA's help system is based on the idea of
assembling various pieces as needed to create documents for printing,
and using these various pieces for online help. LaTeX is the primary
language of the help system, because we can easily convert it to HTML,
and it makes the nicest printed documents.

The scripts for the help system are stored in /docs/help in the CVS

=head2 Data Sources

The help system can draw from the following sources to create help

=over 4

=item * B<LaTeX fragments>: LaTeX fragments stored in
C</loncom/html/adm/help/tex> in the CVS repository (which end up in
C</home/httpd/html/adm/help/tex>). A "LaTeX fragment" is a file that
contains LaTeX-style markup, but is not a complete LaTeX file with
header and footer.

=item * B<perl POD documentation>: POD documentation may be extracted
from perl modules used in LON-CAPA, using the syntax described in
podselect's man page.


=head2 Online Help

The online aspect of the help system is covered in the documentation
for; see L<Apache::loncommon>, look for

Online help can only come from LaTeX fragments.

Access to the printed documents is partially provided online by
rendering the help files structure in a way that allows the user to
click through to the underlying help files; see 
L<> for an
example. It's not very good, but it's marginally better then nothing.

=head2 Offline Documents 

Offline documents are generated from XML documents which tell a
rendering script how to assemble the various LaTeX fragments into a
single LaTeX file, which is then rendered into PostScript and PDF
files, suitable for download and printing. 

=head1 texxml And Rendering texxml

=head2 texxml 

texxml is a little XML file format used to specify to the texxml2*.pl
scripts how to assemble the input sources into LaTeX documents. texxml
files end in the .texxml extension, and there is one texxml file per
final rendered document.

The texxml format is as follows: There is a root <texxml> element,
with no attributes and the following children:

=over 4

=item * B<title>: The B<name> attribute of this tag is used as the
   title of the document in; it is ignored in If you don't intend to offer online-access
   to the rendered documents this may be skipped.

=item * B<section>, B<subsection>, and B<subsubsection>: These create
   the corresponding environments in the output file. The B<name>
   attribute is used to determine the name of the section.

=item * B<file>: The C<name> attribute specifies a LaTeX fragment by
   filename. The file is assumed to be located in the
   C<loncom/html/adm/help/tex/> directory in the CVS repository. The
   C<.tex> is required.

=item * B<tex>: The contents of the B<content> attribute are directly
   inserted into the rendered LaTeX file, followed by a paragraph
   break. This is generally used for little connective paragraphs in
   the documentation that don't make sense in the online help. See
   C<author.manual.texxml> for several example usages.

=item * B<pod>: The B<file> attribute specified a file to draw the POD
   documentation out of. The B<section> attribute is a section
   specification matching the format specified in the man page of
   podselect. By default, all POD will be included. The file is
   assumed to be relative to the C<loncom> directory in the CVS
   repository; you are allowed to escape from that with .. if
   necessary. The B<h1level> attribute can be used to change 
   the default depth of the headings; by default, this is set to 2,
   which makes =head1 a "subsection". Setting this higher can allow
   you to bundle several related pod files together; see 
   developer.manual.texxml for examples.

=back will automatically include C<Latex_Header.tex> at the
beginning and C<Latex_Footer.tex> at the end, to make a complete
document LaTeX document.

=head2 Rendering texxml 


X<texxml, rendering>X<>The C<> script
takes a .texxml file, and produces PostScript and PDF files. The LaTeX
files will be given access to .eps files in the
C</loncom/html/adm/help/eps/> directory while rendering. Call it as
follows, from the C<doc/help> directory:

 perl -- author.manual.texxml

substituting the appropriate texxml file.


X<> is a perl script that takes texxml in and assembles
the final LaTeX file, outputting it on stout. Invoke it as follows:

 perl author.manual.texx

Note that there is no error handling; if the script can not find a
.tex file, it is simply ignored. Generally, if a file is not in the
final render, it either could not be found, or you do not have
sufficient permissions with the current user to read it.


X<> is a perl script that takes texxml in and assembles a
file that can be used online to access all the .tex files that are
specified in the .texxml file. For an example of how this looks
online, see

=head2 texxml support

There are a couple of scripts that you may find useful for creating
texxml-based help:


X<> is a Python script that helps you seperate a
monolithic .tex file into the small pieces LON-CAPA's help system
expects. Invoke it like this:

 python monolithic.tex

where C<monolithic.tex> is the .tex file you want to split into
pieces. This requires Python 2.1 or greater (2.0 may work); on many
modern RedHat installs this is installed by default under the
executable name C<python2>.

Use the program by highlighting the desired section, give it a file
name in the textbox near the bottom, and hit the bottom button. The
program will remove that text from the textbox, and create a file in
the C<loncom/html/adm/help/tex/> directory containing that LaTeX. For
consistency, you should use underscores rather then spaces in the
filename, and note there are a few naming conventions for the .tex
files, which you can see just by listing the
C<loncom/html/adm/help/tex/> directory.

The idea behind this program is that if you are writing a big document
from scratch, you can use a "real" program like LyX to create the .tex
file, then easily split it with this program.


X<> is a python script that takes a .texxml file and shows
all the tex files that went into in sequence, allowing you to "edit"
the entire document as one entity. Note this is intended for simple
typo corrections and such in context, not major modification of the
document. Invoke it with 

 python author.manual.texxml

Make your changes, and hit the "Save" button to save them.

=head2 texxml LaTeX Feature Support

=head3 Cross-referencing

LaTeX has a cross-referencing system build around labeling points in
the document with \label, and referencing those labels with \ref. In a
complete LaTeX document, there's no problem because all \refs and
\labels are present. However, for the online help, \ref'ing something
that is not in the current LaTeX fragment causes a TTH error when it
can't find the crossreference.

The solution is to do the cross-references for TTH. When LON-CAPA is
installed, the C<>X<> script
is executed, which extracts all the labels from the LaTeX fragments
and stores them in the C<fragmentLabels.gdbm>X<fragmentLabels.gdbm> hash. 
The C<> handler then replaces \refs with appropriate
HTML to provide a link to the referenced help file while online. Thus,
you can freely use references, even in online help.

=head3 Indexing

LaTeX has a popular index making package called MakeIndex. LON-CAPA's
help system supports this, so you can create indices using the \index
LaTeX command. In perl POD files, use the X command. Note that in both
cases the index text is not included in the render, so the index must 
be included in addition to the indexed text, and need not match the 
indexed text precisely.

=head1 Writing POD: Style

Adopting a little bit from everybody who has included POD in their
documents to date, the help system is going to expect the following
format for POD documentation.

The POD should start with a C<=head1> with the title C<NAME> (in caps
as shown). The following paragraph should extremely briefly describe
what the module does and contains. Example:

 =head1 NAME

 Apache::lonflunkstudent - provides interface to set all
   student assessments point score to 0

Next should be a C<head1> titled C<SYNOPSIS> which contains a
paragraph or two description of the module.

 =head1 SYNOPSIS

 lonflunkstudent provides a handler to select a student and set all
 assignment values to zero, thereby flunking the student.

 Routines for setting all assessments to some value are provided by
 this module, as well as some useful student taunting routines.

Optionally, an C<OVERVIEW> section can be included. This can then be
extracted by the help system for the LON-CAPA subsystems overview
chapter. The overview should be a relatively high-level, but still
technical, overview of the module, sufficient to give the reader
enough context to understand what the module does, what it might be
useful for in other contexts, and what is going on in the code when it
is read.

The remainder should be formatted as appropriate for the file, such
that discarding the NAME, SYNOPSIS, and OVERVIEW sections provides a
useful API overview of the module. This may be anything from an 
elaborate discussion of the data structures, algorithms, and design 
principles that went into the module, or a simple listing of 
what functions exist, how to call them, and what they return, as

Routines that are private to the module should B<not> be documented;
document them in perl comments, or, as is the style of the time, not
at all, as is appropriate.

Method and function names should be bolded when being

Literal string such as filename should be enclosed in
the C command, like this: C</home/httpd/lonTabs/>. 

Indexing can be done with the X command in perldoc, and should be used 
as appropriate. Do not include X commands in the headings, the output 
from pod2latex screws up some regexes in


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