File:  [LON-CAPA] / loncom / homework / radiobuttonresponse.pm
Revision 1.162: download - view: text, annotated - select for diffs
Wed Dec 19 04:07:35 2018 UTC (3 years, 5 months ago) by raeburn
Branches: MAIN
CVS tags: version_2_12_X, HEAD
- Bug 6724.

# The LearningOnline Network with CAPA
# mutliple choice style responses
#
# $Id: radiobuttonresponse.pm,v 1.162 2018/12/19 04:07:35 raeburn Exp $
#
# Copyright Michigan State University Board of Trustees
#
# This file is part of the LearningOnline Network with CAPA (LON-CAPA).
#
# LON-CAPA is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
#
# LON-CAPA is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
# GNU General Public License for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with LON-CAPA; if not, write to the Free Software# Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
#
# /home/httpd/html/adm/gpl.txt
#
# http://www.lon-capa.org/
#



package Apache::radiobuttonresponse;
use strict;
use HTML::Entities();
use Apache::lonlocal;
use Apache::lonnet;
use Apache::response;
use Apache::caparesponse;

my $default_bubbles_per_line = 10;
my @alphabet      = ( 'A' .. 'Z' ); # Foil labels.




BEGIN {
    &Apache::lonxml::register('Apache::radiobuttonresponse',('radiobuttonresponse'));
}

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
#  Generic utility subs.

sub bubble_line_count {
    my ($numfoils, $bubbles_per_line) = @_;
    my $bubble_lines;
    $bubble_lines = int($numfoils / $bubbles_per_line);
    if (($numfoils % $bubbles_per_line) != 0) {
	$bubble_lines++;
    }
    return $bubble_lines;
    
}



#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
#  XML handlers.
sub start_radiobuttonresponse {
    my ($target,$token,$tagstack,$parstack,$parser,$safeeval,$style)=@_;
    my $result;

    #when in a radiobutton response use these
    &Apache::lonxml::register('Apache::radiobuttonresponse',('foilgroup','foil','conceptgroup'));
    push (@Apache::lonxml::namespace,'radiobuttonresponse');
    my $id = &Apache::response::start_response($parstack,$safeeval);

    %Apache::hint::radiobutton=();
    undef(%Apache::response::foilnames);
    if ($target eq 'meta') {
	$result=&Apache::response::meta_package_write('radiobuttonresponse');
    } elsif ($target eq 'edit' ) {
	$result.=&Apache::edit::start_table($token)
           .'<tr><td>'.&Apache::loncommon::insert_folding_button()
           .&Apache::lonxml::description($token)
           .&Apache::loncommon::help_open_topic('Radio_Response_Problems')
           .'</td>'
           .'<td><span class="LC_nobreak">'.&mt('Delete?').' '
           .&Apache::edit::deletelist($target,$token)
           .'</span></td>'
           .'<td>&nbsp;'.&Apache::edit::end_row()
           .&Apache::edit::start_spanning_row();
	$result.=
	    &Apache::edit::text_arg('Max Number Of Shown Foils:','max',
				    $token,'4').
	    &Apache::edit::select_arg('Randomize Foil Order:','randomize',
				      ['yes','no'],$token).
	    &Apache::edit::select_arg('Display Direction:','direction',
				      ['vertical','horizontal'],$token).
				      &Apache::edit::end_row().
				      &Apache::edit::start_spanning_row()."\n";
    } elsif ($target eq 'modified') {
	my $constructtag=&Apache::edit::get_new_args($token,$parstack,
						     $safeeval,'max',
						     'randomize','direction');
	if ($constructtag) { $result = &Apache::edit::rebuild_tag($token); }

   } elsif ( $target eq 'tex' ) {
        my $type =
          &Apache::lonxml::get_param( 'TeXtype', $parstack, $safeeval, undef,
            0 );
        if ( $type eq '1' ) {
            $result .= ' \renewcommand{\labelenumi}{\arabic{enumi}.}';
        }
        elsif ( $type eq 'A' ) {
            $result .= ' \renewcommand{\labelenumi}{\Alph{enumi}.}';
        }
        elsif ( $type eq 'a' ) {
            $result .= ' \renewcommand{\labelenumi}{\alph{enumi}.}';
        }
        elsif ( $type eq 'i' ) {
            $result .= ' \renewcommand{\labelenumi}{\roman{enumi}.}';
        }
        else {
            $result .= ' \renewcommand{\labelenumi}{\Alph{enumi}.}';
        }

    }
    elsif ( $target eq 'analyze' ) {
        my $part_id = "$Apache::inputtags::part.$id";
        $Apache::lonhomework::analyze{"$part_id.type"} = 'radiobuttonresponse';
	push (@{ $Apache::lonhomework::analyze{"parts"} },$part_id);
    }
    return $result;
}

sub end_radiobuttonresponse {
    my ($target,$token,$tagstack,$parstack,$parser,$safeeval,$style)=@_;
    my $result;
    if ( $target eq 'edit' ) { 
	$result = &Apache::edit::end_table(); 
    }
    &Apache::response::end_response;
    pop @Apache::lonxml::namespace;
    &Apache::lonxml::deregister('Apache::radiobuttonresponse',('foilgroup','foil','conceptgroup'));
    undef(%Apache::response::foilnames);
    return $result;
}

%Apache::response::foilgroup=();
sub start_foilgroup {
    my ($target,$token,$tagstack,$parstack,$parser,$safeeval,$style)=@_;
    %Apache::response::foilgroup=();
    $Apache::radiobuttonresponse::conceptgroup=0;
    &Apache::response::pushrandomnumber(undef,$target);
    return;
}

sub storesurvey {
    my ($style) = @_;
    if ( !&Apache::response::submitted() ) { return ''; }
    my $response = $env{'form.HWVAL_'.$Apache::inputtags::response['-1']};
    &Apache::lonxml::debug("Here I am!:$response:");
    if ( $response !~ /[0-9]+/) { return ''; }
    my $part = $Apache::inputtags::part;
    my $id = $Apache::inputtags::response['-1'];
    my @whichfoils=@{ $Apache::response::foilgroup{'names'} };
    my %responsehash;
    $responsehash{$whichfoils[$response]}=$response;
    my $responsestr=&Apache::lonnet::hash2str(%responsehash);
    $Apache::lonhomework::results{"resource.$part.$id.submission"}=
	$responsestr;
    my %previous=&Apache::response::check_for_previous($responsestr,$part,$id);
    my $ad;
    if ($style eq 'anonsurvey') {
        $ad=$Apache::lonhomework::results{"resource.$part.$id.awarddetail"}='ANONYMOUS';
    } elsif ($style eq 'anonsurveycred') {
        $ad=$Apache::lonhomework::results{"resource.$part.$id.awarddetail"}='ANONYMOUS_CREDIT';
    } elsif ($style eq 'surveycred') {
        $ad=$Apache::lonhomework::results{"resource.$part.$id.awarddetail"}='SUBMITTED_CREDIT';
    } else {
        $ad=$Apache::lonhomework::results{"resource.$part.$id.awarddetail"}='SUBMITTED';
    }
    &Apache::response::handle_previous(\%previous,$ad);
    &Apache::lonxml::debug("submitted a $response<br />\n");
    return '';
}


sub grade_response {
    my ($answer, $whichfoils, $bubbles_per_line)=@_;

    if ( !&Apache::response::submitted() ) { return; }
    my $response;
    
    if ($env{'form.submitted'} eq 'scantron') {
	$response = &Apache::response::getresponse(1,undef,
						   &bubble_line_count(scalar(@{ $whichfoils}),
								      $bubbles_per_line),
						   $bubbles_per_line);

    } else {
	$response = $env{'form.HWVAL_'.$Apache::inputtags::response['-1']};
    }


    if ( $response !~ /[0-9]+/) { return; }
    my $part=$Apache::inputtags::part;
    my $id = $Apache::inputtags::response['-1'];
    my %responsehash;
    $responsehash{$whichfoils->[$response]}=$response;
    my $responsestr=&Apache::lonnet::hash2str(%responsehash);
    my %previous=&Apache::response::check_for_previous($responsestr,
						       $part,$id);
    $Apache::lonhomework::results{"resource.$part.$id.submission"}=
	$responsestr;
    &Apache::lonxml::debug("submitted a $response<br />\n");
    my $ad;
    if ($response == $answer) {
	$ad='EXACT_ANS';
    } else {
	$ad='INCORRECT';
    }
    $Apache::lonhomework::results{"resource.$part.$id.awarddetail"}=$ad;
    &Apache::response::handle_previous(\%previous,$ad);
}

sub end_foilgroup {
    my ($target,$token,$tagstack,$parstack,$parser,$safeeval,$style)=@_;

    my $result;
    my $bubble_lines;
    my $answer_count;
    my $id   = $Apache::inputtags::response['-1'];
    my $part = $Apache::inputtags::part;
    my $bubbles_per_line = &getbubblesnum($part,$id);


    if ($target eq 'grade' || $target eq 'web' || $target eq 'answer' ||
	$target eq 'tex' || $target eq 'analyze') {
	my $style = $Apache::lonhomework::type;
	my $direction = &Apache::lonxml::get_param('direction',$parstack,
						   $safeeval,'-2');
	if ( (($style eq 'survey') || ($style eq 'surveycred') || 
              ($style eq 'anonsurvey') || ($style eq 'anonsurveycred')) 
             && ($target ne 'analyze')) {
	    if ($target eq 'web' || $target eq 'tex') {
		$result=&displayallfoils($direction, $target);
	    } elsif ( $target eq 'answer' ) {
		$result=&displayallanswers();
	    } elsif ( $target eq 'grade' ) {
		$result=&storesurvey($style);
	    }
	    $answer_count = scalar(@{$Apache::response::foilgroup{'names'}});

	} else {

	    my $name;
	    my $max = &Apache::lonxml::get_param('max',$parstack,$safeeval,
						 '-2');
	    my $randomize = &Apache::lonxml::get_param('randomize',$parstack,
						       $safeeval,'-2');
	    my ($answer, @shown) = &whichfoils($max, $randomize);
	    $answer_count = scalar(@shown);

	    if ($target eq 'web' || $target eq 'tex') {
                $result=&displayfoils($target,
				      $answer, \@shown,
				      $direction,
				      $bubbles_per_line);
	    } elsif ($target eq 'answer' ) {
		$result=&displayanswers($answer, \@shown, $bubbles_per_line);
	    } elsif ( $target eq 'grade') {
		&grade_response($answer, \@shown, $bubbles_per_line);
	    }  elsif ( $target eq 'analyze') {
		my $bubble_lines = &bubble_line_count($answer_count, 
						      $bubbles_per_line);
		&Apache::response::analyze_store_foilgroup(\@shown,
							   ['text','value','location']);
		my $part_id="$part.$id";
		push (@{ $Apache::lonhomework::analyze{"$part_id.options"} },
		      ('true','false'));

	    }
	}
	$Apache::lonxml::post_evaluate=0;
    }
    if ($target eq 'web') {
	&Apache::response::setup_prior_tries_hash(\&format_prior_answer,
						  [\%Apache::response::foilgroup]);
    }
    &Apache::response::poprandomnumber();
    $bubble_lines = &bubble_line_count($answer_count, $bubbles_per_line);
    &Apache::lonxml::increment_counter($bubble_lines,
				       "$part.$id");
    if ($target eq 'analyze') {
	&Apache::lonhomework::set_bubble_lines();
    }
    return $result;
}
sub getbubblesnum {
    my ($part,$id) = @_;
    my $bubbles_per_line;
    my $default_numbubbles = $default_bubbles_per_line;
    if (($env{'form.bubbles_per_row'} =~ /^\d+$/) &&
        ($env{'form.bubbles_per_row'} > 0)) {
        $default_numbubbles = $env{'form.bubbles_per_row'};
    }
    $bubbles_per_line =
        &Apache::response::get_response_param($part."_$id",'numbubbles',
                                              $default_numbubbles);
    return $bubbles_per_line;
}

sub getfoilcounts {
    my @names;
    my $truecnt=0;
    my $falsecnt=0;
    my $name;
    if ( $Apache::response::foilgroup{'names'} ) {
	@names= @{ $Apache::response::foilgroup{'names'} };
    }
    foreach $name (@names) {
	if ($Apache::response::foilgroup{$name.'.value'} eq 'true') {
	    $truecnt++;
	} elsif ($Apache::response::foilgroup{$name.'.value'} eq 'false') {
	    $falsecnt++;
	}
    }
    return ($truecnt,$falsecnt);
}

sub format_prior_answer {
    my ($mode,$answer,$other_data) = @_;
    my $foil_data = $other_data->[0];
    my %response = &Apache::lonnet::str2hash($answer);
    my ($name)   = keys(%response);
    return '<span class="LC_prior_radiobutton">'.
	$foil_data->{$name.'.text'}.'</span>';

}


## 
# Return the last survey response.  The logic is slightly different than that of 
# get_last_responses.  TODO: See if there are chunks of code betweenthis and
# get_last_reponses that are common and can be factored.
#
# @param $part - Problem part under consideration.
# @param $showanswer - True if answers should be shown.
# @param $id         - Problem id.
#
# @return hash reference.
# @retval reference to the has indexed by answer selection that 
#         indicates the most recent answer.
#
sub get_last_survey_response {
    my ($part, $showanswer, $id) = @_;

    my $newvariation;
    my $lastresponse;		# stringified last response.

    if (
        (
            (
                $Apache::lonhomework::history{"resource.$part.type"} eq
                'randomizetry'
            )
            || ( $Apache::lonhomework::type eq 'randomizetry' )
        )
        && ( $Apache::inputtags::status[-1] eq 'CAN_ANSWER' )
      )
    {
        if ( $env{ 'form.' . $part . '.rndseed' } ne
            $Apache::lonhomework::history{"resource.$part.rndseed"} )
        {
            $newvariation = 1;
        }
    }
    $showanswer = &Apache::response::show_answer();
    unless ($newvariation && !$showanswer) {
        if ((($env{'form.grade_username'} eq '') && ($env{'form.grade_domain'} eq '')) ||
            (($env{'form.grade_username'} eq $env{'user.name'}) &&
             ($env{'form.grade_domain'} eq $env{'user.domain'}))) {
            $lastresponse = $Apache::lonhomework::history{"resource.$part.$id.submission"};
        } else {
            unless (($Apache::lonhomework::history{"resource.$part.type"} eq 'anonsurvey') ||
                    ($Apache::lonhomework::history{"resource.$part.type"} eq 'anonsurveycred')) {
                $lastresponse = $Apache::lonhomework::history{"resource.$part.$id.submission"};
            }
        }
    }
    my %lastresponse = &Apache::lonnet::str2hash($lastresponse);

    return \%lastresponse;

}
##
# Removes the names from a foil group that are marked as unused.
#
# @param $names - reference to the array of names to filter.
#
# @return arrayref
# @retval reference to the filtered array.
#
sub remove_unused {
    my ($names) = @_;
    my @result;

    foreach my $name (@{$names}) {
	if ($Apache::response::foilgroup{$name . '.value'} ne 'unused') {
	    push(@result, $name);
	}
    }
    return \@result;
}
## 
# Displays all foils in a survey type problem for HTML rendition.
# TODO: See if there is any logic in this sub that can be shared
#      with display_foils_html
#
# @param $names        - ref to array of names of the foils to display.
# @param $part         - Problem part number.
# @param $showanswer   - If true, show the answers.
# @param $lastresponse - Ref to the last response hash.
# @param $direction    - Display direction of the radiobuttons.
#
# @return string
# @retval HTML required to display the resource in a browser.
#
sub display_survey_html {
    my ($names, $part, $showanswer, $lastresponse, $direction) = @_;
    my $result;

    # Figure out a few fragments of html that depend onthe 
    # orientation of the radiobuttons:
    # closing_html - HTML to emit at the end of the resource.
    # pre_foil     - HTML to emit prior to each foil.
    # post_foil    - HTML to emit following each foil.
    #
    #  The opening HTML is just added to the $result now
    #
    #  Figuring these outin advance compresses the loop over foils into something
    #  pretty simple:
    #
    # NOTE: There's probably a really cool way to do this with style sheets
    #       and picking the selector based on the orientation, if someone wants to puzzle
    #       that out.  In that case, probably the whole thing lives in a <div> and each
    #       foil lives in a <p>
    #


    my ($opening_html, $closing_html, $pre_foil, $post_foil) = 
	&html_direction_fragments($direction);

    $result = $opening_html;

    # Different rendering depending on whether answers are shown:
    # I played with different factorings but this seems the most concise/clear...
    # although I don't like the $showanswer conditino inside the loop.  Other things I tried
    #  - two loops..much longer code..no gain in clarity.
    #  - Using a visitor patttern passing it the rendering code chunklets and
    #    an anonymous hash reference for state data etc. Very cool but
    #    quite a bit more code and quite a bit less clear.
    
    my $temp = 0;
    foreach my $name (@{$names}) {
	$result .= $pre_foil;

	if ($showanswer) {
	    my $foiltext =  $Apache::response::foilgroup{$name . '.text'};

	    # Bold the prior  response:

	    if (defined($lastresponse->{$name})) {
		$result .= '<b>' . $foiltext . '</b>';
	    } else {
		$result .= $foiltext;
	    }
	} else {
	    $result .= &html_radiobutton(
		$part, $Apache::inputtags::response['-1'], $name, $lastresponse, $temp
	     );
	}

	$result .= $post_foil;
	$temp++;
    }


    $result .= $closing_html;
    return $result;

}

##
#  Generate LaTeX for surveys.
#  
#   @param $names - names of the foils to display.
#   @param $showanswer - flag that is true to display answers.
#   @param $lastresponse - Reference to a hash the indicates the last response.
#   @param $direction    - Orientation of foils ('horiztonal' or otherwise).
#   @param $venv         - LaTeX name for vertical env.
#
#   @return string
#   @retval LaTeX rendering of the survey question.

sub latex_survey {
    my ($names, $showanswer, $lastresponse, $direction, $venv) = @_;

    my $result;
    if ($showanswer) {
	$result .= "\\begin{$venv}";
	foreach my $name (@{$names}) {
	    
	    
	    $result .= '\item \vskip -2mm ';
	    
	    if ( defined( $lastresponse->{$name} ) ) {
		$result .= '}';
	    }
	    $result .= $Apache::response::foilgroup{ $name . '.text' } . ' ';
	}
	$result .= "\\end{$venv}";

    } elsif ( $env{'form.pdfFormFields'} eq 'yes'
	      && $Apache::inputtags::status[-1] eq 'CAN_ANSWER') {
	$result .= &display_pdf_form($names, $direction, $venv);
    } else {
	if ($direction eq 'horizontal') {
	    my @foil_texts = &get_foil_texts($names);
	    $result .=  &Apache::caparesponse::make_horizontal_latex_bubbles(
	    $names, \@foil_texts, '$\bigcirc$');
	} else {
	    $result .= "\\begin{$venv}";

	    my $temp = 0;
	    my $i    = 0;
	    foreach my $name (@{$names}) {

		$result .= '\item \vskip -2mm ';
		
		if ($env{'form.pdfFormFields'} ne 'yes'
		    or $Apache::inputtags::status[-1] ne 'CAN_ANSWER' )
		{
		    $result .=
			'$\bigcirc$'
			. $Apache::response::foilgroup{ $name . '.text' }
		    . '\\\\';    #' stupid emacs
		}
		
		$i++;	    
		$temp++;
		
		$result .= '\vskip 0 mm ';
	    }
	    $result .= "\\end{$venv}";
	}	
    }
    return $result;
}
##
#  Figure out the LaTeX environment in which to wrap the LaTeX vertical output.
#
# @return string
# @retval the environment name.  The LaTeX should be wrapped a 
#    \begin{retval} \end{retval} pair.
#
sub latex_vertical_environment {
    if ($env{'form.pdfFormFields'} eq 'yes'
	&& $Apache::inputtags::status[-1] eq 'CAN_ANSWER') {
	return 'itemize';
    } else {
	return 'enumerate';
    }
}

##
# Figure out the key html fragments that depend on the rendering direction:
#
# @param $direction - 'horizontal' for horizontal direction.
#
# @return list
# @retval (part_start, part_end, foil_start, foil_end)
# Where:
#   - part_start is the HTML to emit at the start of the part.
#   - part_end   is the HTML to emit at the end of the part.
#   - foil_start is the HTML to emit prior to each foil.
#   - foil_end is the HTML to emit after each foil
#
sub html_direction_fragments {
    my $direction = shift;
    if ($direction eq 'horizontal') {
	return ('<table><tr>', '</tr></table>', '<td>', '</td>');
    } else {
	return ('', '', '<div class="LC_radiofoil">', '</div>');
    }
}

##
#
#  Displays all the foils of a problem in a format suitable for
#   surveys, surveys for credit, anonymous surveys and anonymous surveys for credit.
#
#  @param $direction - Display direction of the choices ('horiztonal' or not).
#  @param $target    - Rendering target.
#
#  @return string
#  @retval Text that renders for the selected target.
# 
sub displayallfoils{
    my ( $direction, $target ) = @_;
    my $result;
    &Apache::lonxml::debug("survey style display");

    my @names;

    if ( $Apache::response::foilgroup{'names'} ) {
        @names = @{ $Apache::response::foilgroup{'names'} };
    }


    my $id   = $Apache::inputtags::response['-1'];
    my $part = $Apache::inputtags::part;
    
    my $showanswer = &Apache::response::show_answer();
    my $lastresponse = &get_last_survey_response($part, $showanswer, $id);
    my $used_names = &remove_unused(\@names);


    if ($target ne 'tex') {
	$result .= &display_survey_html(
	    $used_names, $part, $showanswer, $lastresponse, $direction
	);
    } else {	

	my $vertical_env = &latex_vertical_environment();
	$result .= &latex_survey(
	    $used_names, $showanswer, $lastresponse, $direction, $vertical_env
	);

    }
    return $result;
}

sub whichfoils {
    my ($max,$randomize)=@_;

    my @truelist;
    my @falselist;
    my @whichfalse =();
    my ($truecnt,$falsecnt) = &getfoilcounts();
    my $count=0;
    # we will add in 1 of the true statements
    if ( $max>0 && ($falsecnt+1)>$max) { $count=$max } else { $count=$falsecnt+1; $max=$count; }
    my $answer=int(&Math::Random::random_uniform() * ($count));
    &Apache::lonxml::debug("Count is $count, $answer is $answer");
    my @names;
    if ( $Apache::response::foilgroup{'names'} ) {
	@names= @{ $Apache::response::foilgroup{'names'} };
    }
    if (&Apache::response::showallfoils()) {
	@whichfalse=@names;
    } elsif ($randomize eq 'no') {
	&Apache::lonxml::debug("No randomization");
	my $havetrue=0;
	foreach my $name (@names) {
	    if ($Apache::response::foilgroup{$name.'.value'} eq 'true') {
		if (!$havetrue ) {
		    push(@whichfalse,$name); $havetrue++; $answer=$#whichfalse;
		}
	    } elsif ($Apache::response::foilgroup{$name.'.value'} eq 'false') {
		push (@whichfalse,$name);
	    } elsif ($Apache::response::foilgroup{$name.'.value'} eq 'unused') {
	    } else {
		&Apache::lonxml::error(&HTML::Entities::encode("No valid value assigned ($Apache::response::foilgroup{$name.'.value'}) for foil $name in <foilgroup>",'<>&"'));
	    }
	}
	if ((!$havetrue) && 
            ($Apache::lonhomework::type ne 'survey') && 
            ($Apache::lonhomework::type ne 'surveycred') &&
            ($Apache::lonhomework::type ne 'anonsurvey') &&
            ($Apache::lonhomework::type ne 'anonsurveycred')) {
	    &Apache::lonxml::error(&mt('There are no true statements available.').'<br />');
	}
    } else {
	my $current=0;
	&Apache::lonhomework::showhash(%Apache::response::foilgroup);
	my (%top,%bottom);
	#first find out where everyone wants to be
	foreach my $name (@names) {
	    $current++;
	    if ($Apache::response::foilgroup{$name.'.value'} eq 'true') {
		push (@truelist,$name);
		if ($Apache::response::foilgroup{$name.'.location'} eq 'top') {
		    $top{$name}=$current;
		} elsif ($Apache::response::foilgroup{$name.'.location'} eq 'bottom') {
		    $bottom{$name}=$current;
		}
	    } elsif ($Apache::response::foilgroup{$name.'.value'} eq 'false') {
		push (@falselist,$name);
		if ($Apache::response::foilgroup{$name.'.location'} eq 'top') {
		    $top{$name}=$current;
		} elsif ($Apache::response::foilgroup{$name.'.location'} eq 'bottom') {
		    $bottom{$name}=$current;
		}
	    } elsif ($Apache::response::foilgroup{$name.'.value'} eq 'unused') {
	    } else {
		&Apache::lonxml::error(&HTML::Entities::encode("No valid value assigned ($Apache::response::foilgroup{$name.'.value'}) for foil $name in <foilgroup>",'<>&"'));
	    }
	}
	#pick a true statement
	my $notrue=0;
	if (scalar(@truelist) == 0) { $notrue=1; }
	my $whichtrue = int(&Math::Random::random_uniform() * ($#truelist+1));
	&Apache::lonxml::debug("Max is $max, From $#truelist elms, picking $whichtrue");
	my (@toplist, @bottomlist);
	my $topcount=0;
	my $bottomcount=0;
	# assign everyone to either toplist/bottomlist or whichfalse
	# which false is randomized, toplist bottomlist are in order
	while ((($#whichfalse+$topcount+$bottomcount) < $max-2) && ($#falselist > -1)) {
	    &Apache::lonxml::debug("Have $#whichfalse max is $max");
	    my $afalse=int(&Math::Random::random_uniform() * ($#falselist+1));
	    &Apache::lonxml::debug("From $#falselist elms, picking $afalse");
	    $afalse=splice(@falselist,$afalse,1);
	    &Apache::lonxml::debug("Picked $afalse");
	    &Apache::lonhomework::showhash(('names'=>\@names));
	    &Apache::lonhomework::showhash(%top);
	    if ($top{$afalse}) {
		$toplist[$top{$afalse}]=$afalse;
		$topcount++;
	    } elsif ($bottom{$afalse}) {
		$bottomlist[$bottom{$afalse}]=$afalse;
		$bottomcount++;
	    } else {
		push (@whichfalse,$afalse);
	    }
	}
	&Apache::lonxml::debug("Answer wants $answer");
	my $truename=$truelist[$whichtrue];
	my $dosplice=1;
	if (($notrue) && 
            ($Apache::lonhomework::type ne 'survey') &&
            ($Apache::lonhomework::type ne 'surveycred') &&
            ($Apache::lonhomework::type ne 'anonsurvey') &&
            ($Apache::lonhomework::type ne 'anonsurveycred')) {
	    $dosplice=0;
	    &Apache::lonxml::error(&mt('There are no true statements available.').'<br />');
	}
	#insert the true statement, keeping track of where it wants to be
	if ($Apache::response::foilgroup{$truename.'.location'} eq 'top' && $dosplice) {
	    $toplist[$top{$truename}]=$truename;
	    $answer=-1;
	    foreach my $top (reverse(@toplist)) {
		if ($top) { $answer++;}
		if ($top eq $truename) { last; }
	    }
	    $dosplice=0;
	} elsif ($Apache::response::foilgroup{$truename.'.location'} eq 'bottom' && $dosplice) {
	    $bottomlist[$bottom{$truename}]=$truename;
	    $answer=-1;
	    foreach my $bot (@bottomlist) {
		if ($bot) { $answer++;}
		if ($bot eq $truename) { last; }
	    }
	    $answer+=$topcount+$#whichfalse+1;
	    $dosplice=0;
	} else {
	    if ($topcount>0 || $bottomcount>0) {
                my $inc = 1;
                if (($bottomcount > 0) && ($Apache::lonhomework::type ne 'exam')) {
                    $inc = 2;
                }
                $answer=int(&Math::Random::random_uniform() * ($#whichfalse+$inc))
                        + $topcount;
	    }
	}
	&Apache::lonxml::debug("Answer now wants $answer");
	#add the top items to the top, bottom items to the bottom
	for (my $i=0;$i<=$#toplist;$i++) {
	    if ($toplist[$i]) { unshift(@whichfalse,$toplist[$i]) }
	}
	for (my $i=0;$i<=$#bottomlist;$i++) {
	    if ($bottomlist[$i]) { push(@whichfalse,$bottomlist[$i]) }
	}
	#if the true statement is randomized insert it into the list
	if ($dosplice) { splice(@whichfalse,$answer,0,$truelist[$whichtrue]); }
    }
    &Apache::lonxml::debug("Answer is $answer");
    return ($answer,@whichfalse);
}

## 
#  Return a list  of foil texts given foil names.
#  
# @param $whichfoils - Reference to a list of foil names.
#
# @return array
# @retval foil texts
#
sub get_foil_texts {
    my ($whichfoils) = @_;
    my @foil_texts;

    foreach my $name (@{$whichfoils}) {
	push(@foil_texts, $Apache::response::foilgroup{$name . '.text'});
    }
    return @foil_texts;
}

##
# Generate the HTML for a single html foil.
# @param $part           - The part for which the response is being generated.
# @param $fieldname      - The basename of the radiobutton field
# @param $name           - The foilname.
# @param $last_responses - Reference to a hash that holds the most recent
#                          responses.
# @param $value          - radiobutton value.
# 
# @return text
# @retval The generated html.
#
sub html_radiobutton {
    my ($part, $fieldname, $name, $last_responses, $value) = @_;

    my $result='<label>';
    
    $result .= '<input type="radio" '
		. 'onchange="javascript:setSubmittedPart(' . "'$part');\" "
		. 'name="HWVAL_' . $fieldname . '" '
		. 'value="'.$value.'"';

    if (defined($last_responses->{$name})) {
	$result .= '  checked="checked" ';
    }
    $result .= ' />';
    $result .= $Apache::response::foilgroup{$name . '.text'};
    $result .= '</label>';

    return $result;

}
##
# Return a reference to the last response hash. This hash has exactly
# one or zero entries.  The one entry is keyed by the foil 'name' of
# the prior response
#
# @param $part - Number of the problem part.
# 
# @return reference to a hash.
# @retval see above.
#
sub get_last_response {
    my ($part) = @_;

    my $id = $Apache::inputtags::response['-1'];
    my ( $lastresponse, $newvariation );
    
    if ((( $Apache::lonhomework::history{"resource.$part.type"} eq  'randomizetry')
	 || ( $Apache::lonhomework::type eq 'randomizetry' )
	)
	&& ( $Apache::inputtags::status[-1] eq 'CAN_ANSWER' )
	)
    {
	
	if ( $env{ 'form.' . $part . '.rndseed' } ne
	     $Apache::lonhomework::history{"resource.$part.rndseed"} )
	{
	    $newvariation = 1;
	}
    }
    unless ($newvariation) {
        if ((($env{'form.grade_username'} eq '') && ($env{'form.grade_domain'} eq '')) ||
            (($env{'form.grade_username'} eq $env{'user.name'}) &&
             ($env{'form.grade_domain'} eq $env{'user.domain'}))) {
            $lastresponse =
                $Apache::lonhomework::history{"resource.$part.$id.submission"};
        } else {
            unless (($Apache::lonhomework::history{"resource.$part.type"} eq 'anonsurvey') ||
                    ($Apache::lonhomework::history{"resource.$part.type"} eq 'anonsurveycred')) {
                $lastresponse =
                    $Apache::lonhomework::history{"resource.$part.$id.submission"};

            }
        }
    }

    my %lastresponse = &Apache::lonnet::str2hash($lastresponse);

    return \%lastresponse;
}

##
# Display foils in html rendition.:
#
# @param $whichfoils - Set of foils to display.
# @param $target     - Rendition target...there are several html targets.
# @param $direction  - 'horizontal' if layout is horizontal.
# @param $part       - Part of the problem that's being displayed.
# @param $show_answer- True if answers should be shown.
#
# @return string
# @retval generated html.
#
sub display_foils_html {
    my ($whichfoils, $target, $direction, $part, $show_answer) = @_;
    my $result;


    # if the answers get shown, we need to label each item as correct or
    # incorrect.

    my ($opening_html, $finalclose, $item_pretext, $item_posttext) = 
	&html_direction_fragments($direction);

    $result .= $opening_html;


    if ($show_answer) {

	foreach my $name (@{$whichfoils}) {

	    # If the item gets further surrounded by tags, this 
	    # holds the closures for those tages.

	    my $item_closetag = '';

	    $result .= $item_pretext;

	    # Label each foil as correct or incorrect:

	    if ($Apache::response::foilgroup{$name . '.value'} eq 'true') {
		$result .= &mt('Correct:') . '<b>';
		$item_closetag .= '</b>';
		
	    } else {
		$result .= &mt('Incorrect');
	    }

	    # Web rendition encloses the 
	    # item text in a label tag as well:

	    if ($target eq 'web') {
		$result .= '<label>';
		$item_closetag = '</label>' . $item_closetag;
	    }
	    $result .= $Apache::response::foilgroup{$name . '.text'};
	    $result .= $item_closetag;
	    $result .= $item_posttext;
	    $result .= "\n";	# make the html a bit more readable.
	}


    } else {
	my $lastresponse = &get_last_response($part);
	
	my $item_no = 0;
	foreach my $name (@{$whichfoils}) {
	    $result .= $item_pretext;
	    $result .= &html_radiobutton(
		$part, $Apache::inputtags::response[-1],
		$name, $lastresponse, $item_no
		);
	    $result .= $item_posttext;
	    $item_no++;
	}
	
    }
    $result .= $finalclose;

    return $result;
}
##
#  Display foils in exam mode for latex
#
# @param $whichfoils       - Reference to an array that contains the foil names to display
# @param $bubbles_per_line - Number of bubbles on a line.
# @param $direction        - Rendering direction 'horizontal' is what we're looking for.
# @param $venv             - Name of LaTeX environment to use for vertical rendering.
#
# @return string
# @return the latex rendering of the exam problem.
#
#
sub display_latex_exam {
    my ($whichfoils, $bubbles_per_line, $direction, $venv) = @_;
    my $result;
    my $numlines;
    my $bubble_number = 0;
    my $line          = 0;
    my $i             = 0;

    
    if ($direction eq  'horizontal') {

	# Marshall the display text for each foil and turn things over to
	# Apache::response::make_horizontal_bubbles:

	my @foil_texts = &get_foil_texts($whichfoils);
	$result .= &Apache::caparesponse::make_horizontal_latex_bubbles(
	    $whichfoils, \@foil_texts, '$\bigcirc$');

    } else {
	
	$result .= '\vskip 2mm \noindent';

	# This section puts out the prefix that tells the user
	# (if necessary) to only choose one bubble in the next n lines
	# for problems with more than one line worth of bubbles in the grid sheet:
	
	my $numitems = scalar( @{$whichfoils} );
	$numlines = int( $numitems / $bubbles_per_line );
	if ( ( $numitems % $bubbles_per_line ) != 0 ) {
	    $numlines++;
	}
	if ( $numlines < 1 ) {
	    $numlines = 1;
	}
	if ( $numlines > 1 ) {
	    my $linetext;
	    for ( my $i = 0 ; $i < $numlines ; $i++ ) {
		$linetext .= $Apache::lonxml::counter + $i . ', ';
	    }
	    $linetext =~ s/,\s$//;
	    $result .=
		'\small {\textbf{'
		. $linetext . '}} '
		. ' {\footnotesize '
		. &mt( '(Bubble once in [_1] lines)', $numlines )
		. '} \hspace*{\fill} \\\\';
	}
	else {
	    $result .= '\textbf{' . $Apache::lonxml::counter . '}.'.
                       '\hspace*{2 mm}';
	}
	
	# Now output the bubbles themselves:
	
	foreach my $name (@{$whichfoils}) {
	    if ( $bubble_number >= $bubbles_per_line ) {
		$line++;
		$i             = 0;
		$bubble_number = 0;
	    }
	    my $identifier;
	    if ( $numlines > 1 ) {
		$identifier = $Apache::lonxml::counter + $line;
	    }
	    my $preindent;
	    if ($bubble_number > 0) {
                my $offset = 5;
                if ($Apache::lonxml::counter) {
                    if ($identifier) {
                        $offset += 2 * (length($identifier)-1);
                    } else {
                        $offset += 2 * (length($Apache::lonxml::counter)-1);
                    }
                }
                $preindent = '\hspace*{'.$offset.' mm}';
	    }
	    my $foiltext = $Apache::response::foilgroup{$name . '.text'};
	    $foiltext =~ s/\\noindent//; # forgive me for I have sinned..
	    $result .= '{\small \textbf{'
		. $identifier  .$preindent
		. $alphabet[$i]
		. '}}$\bigcirc$'
		. $foiltext
	    . '\\\\';    #' stupid emacs -- it thinks it needs that apostrophe to close the quote
	    
	    $i++;
	    $bubble_number++;
	}

    }	

    return $result;
    
}

##
#  Display latex when exam mode is not on.
#
#  @param $whichfoils - The foils to display
#  @param $direction  - Display direction ('horizontal' is what matters to us).
#  @param $venv       - Vertical env. to use for vertical rendering.
#  @param  $vend      - End the vertical environment being used.
#
#  @return string
#  @retval - The LaTeX rendering of the resource.'
#
sub display_latex {
    my ($whichfoils, $direction, $venv) = @_;
    my $result;

    # how we render depends on the direction.
    # Vertical is some kind of list environment determined by vbegin/vend.
    # Horizontal is a table that is generated by 
    # Apache::caparesponse::make_horizontal_latex_bubbles with an empty string
    # for the actual bubble text.

    if ($direction eq 'horizontal') {
	my @foil_texts = &get_foil_texts($whichfoils);
	$result .= &Apache::caparesponse::make_horizontal_latex_bubbles(
	    $whichfoils, \@foil_texts, '');
    } else {
	$result .= "\\begin{$venv}";
	foreach my $name (@{$whichfoils}) {
	    $result .=  '\vspace*{-2 mm}\item '
		. $Apache::response::foilgroup{ $name . '.text' };
	}
	
	$result .= "\\end{$venv}";
    }
    return $result;
}


##
#  Render foils for a PDF form. This is a variant of tex rednering that provides
#  sufficient markup that the final PDF is a form that can be filled in online,
#  or offline.
#
# @param $whichfoils - References an array of foils to display in the order in which
#                     they should be displayed.
# @param $direction  - Rendering direction.  'horiztonal' means inputs are laid out
#                      horizontally otherwise they are stacked vertically.
# @param $venv       - Vertical environment in which to wrap the foils.
#
# @return string
# @retval String containing the rendering of the resource.
#
# TODO: Take into account direction!!!
#
sub display_pdf_form {
    my ($whichfoils, $direction, $venv) = @_;
    my $temp = 0;
    my $result;

    $result .= "\\begin{$venv}";
    foreach my $name ( @{$whichfoils} ) {
	
	my $fieldname =
	    $env{'request.symb'} 
	. '&part_'
	    . $Apache::inputtags::part
	    . '&radiobuttonresponse'
	    . '&HWVAL_'
	    . $Apache::inputtags::response['-1'];
	$result .= '\item[{'
	    . &Apache::lonxml::print_pdf_radiobutton( $fieldname,
						      $temp )
	    . '}]'
	    . $Apache::response::foilgroup{ $name . '.text' }
	. "\n";
	
	$temp++;
    }
    $result .= "\\end{$venv}";

    return $result;
}


##
# Display selected foils:  This is really just a dispatchter to appropriate renderers
#  
# @param $target   - Target (e.g. 'tex'...).
# @param $answer   - True if answers should be shown.
# @param $whichfoils - Array of foil selectors that indicate which foils shouild be
#                      rendered, in rendering order.
# @param $direction- Rendering direction ('horizontal' is the one we look for,
#                    otherwise foils are rendered one per line vertically.
# @param $bubbles_per_line - number of exam bubbles per line.
#
# @return string
# @retval The rendered problem.

sub displayfoils {
    my ($target,$answer,$whichfoils,$direction, $bubbles_per_line)=@_;
    my $result;


    my $part   = $Apache::inputtags::part;
    my $solved = $Apache::lonhomework::history{"resource.$part.solved"};

    # Show answers html.

    if ( ( $target ne 'tex' )
        && &Apache::response::show_answer() )
    {

	$result = &display_foils_html(
	    $whichfoils, $target, $direction, $part,  1);
	
	# other html
    }  elsif ($target ne 'tex') {
	    $result = &display_foils_html($whichfoils, $target, $direction, $part,
					  0, 0);

       # LaTeX rendering:
    } else {


        my $id            = $Apache::inputtags::response['-1'];
        my $part          = $Apache::inputtags::part;
	my $numlines;
	
	# Decide how to bracket the list of foils:

	my $vertical_env = &latex_vertical_environment();

	# Rendering for latex exams.
	
	if ( ( $Apache::lonhomework::type eq 'exam' ) )
	{
	    $result .= &display_latex_exam(
		$whichfoils, $bubbles_per_line, $direction, $vertical_env);

	    $result .= '\vskip 0mm ';
	    
	} else {	    

	    # Different rendering for PDF form than for a
	    # 'regular' answer direction is honored in both of those
	    #

	    if ( ($env{'form.pdfFormFields'} eq 'yes')
		    && ($Apache::inputtags::status[-1] eq 'CAN_ANSWER'))
	    {
		$result .= &display_pdf_form($whichfoils, $direction, $vertical_env);
	    } else {
		$result .= &display_latex($whichfoils,  $direction, $vertical_env );
	    }
	    $result .= '\vskip 0 mm '; 
       
	}
    }
    return $result;
}

sub displayallanswers {
    my @names;
    if ( $Apache::response::foilgroup{'names'} ) {
	@names= @{ $Apache::response::foilgroup{'names'} };
    }
    my $result=&Apache::response::answer_header('radiobuttonresponse');
    foreach my $name (@names) {
	$result.=&Apache::response::answer_part('radiobuttonresponse',
				$Apache::response::foilgroup{$name.'.value'});
    }
    $result.=&Apache::response::answer_footer('radiobuttonresponse');
    return $result;
}

sub displayanswers {
    my ($answer, $whichopt, $bubbles_per_line)=@_;
    my $result;

    if ($Apache::lonhomework::type eq 'exam') {
	my $line = int($answer/$bubbles_per_line);
	my $correct = ('A'..'Z')[$answer%$bubbles_per_line];
	$result .= &Apache::response::answer_header('radiobuttonresponse',
						    $line);
	$result .= &Apache::response::answer_part('radiobuttonresponse',
						  $correct);
    } else {
	$result .= &Apache::response::answer_header('radiobuttonresponse');
    }
    foreach my $name (@{ $whichopt }) {
	$result.=&Apache::response::answer_part('radiobuttonresponse',
						$Apache::response::foilgroup{$name.'.value'});
    }
    $result.=&Apache::response::answer_footer('radiobuttonresponse');
    return $result;
}

sub start_conceptgroup {
    my ($target,$token,$tagstack,$parstack,$parser,$safeeval,$style)=@_;
    $Apache::radiobuttonresponse::conceptgroup=1;
    %Apache::response::conceptgroup=();
    my $result;
    if ($target eq 'edit') {
	$result.=&Apache::edit::tag_start($target,$token);
	$result.=&Apache::edit::text_arg('Concept:','concept',$token,'50').
	    &Apache::edit::end_row().&Apache::edit::start_spanning_row();
    } elsif ($target eq 'modified') {
	my $constructtag=&Apache::edit::get_new_args($token,$parstack,
						     $safeeval,'concept');
	if ($constructtag) { $result = &Apache::edit::rebuild_tag($token); }
    }
    return $result;
}

sub end_conceptgroup {
    my ($target,$token,$tagstack,$parstack,$parser,$safeeval,$style)=@_;
    $Apache::radiobuttonresponse::conceptgroup=0;
    my $result;
    if ($target eq 'web' || $target eq 'grade' || $target eq 'answer'  ||
	$target eq 'tex' || $target eq 'analyze') {
	&Apache::response::pick_foil_for_concept($target,
						 ['value','text','location'],
						 \%Apache::hint::radiobutton,
						 $parstack,$safeeval);
    } elsif ($target eq 'edit') {
	$result=&Apache::edit::end_table();
    }
    return $result;
}

sub insert_conceptgroup {
    my $result="\n\t\t<conceptgroup concept=\"\">".&insert_foil()."\n\t\t</conceptgroup>\n";
    return $result;
}

sub start_foil {
    my ($target,$token,$tagstack,$parstack,$parser,$safeeval,$style)=@_;
    my $result='';
    if ($target eq 'web' || $target eq 'tex' || $target eq 'analyze') {
	&Apache::lonxml::startredirection;
	if ($target eq 'analyze') {
	    &Apache::response::check_if_computed($token,$parstack,$safeeval,'value');
	}
    } elsif ($target eq 'edit') {
	$result=&Apache::edit::tag_start($target,$token);
	$result.=&Apache::edit::text_arg('Name:','name',$token);
	$result.=&Apache::edit::select_or_text_arg('Correct Option:','value',
						   ['unused','true','false'],
						   $token);
	my $randomize=&Apache::lonxml::get_param('randomize',$parstack,
						 $safeeval,'-3');
	if ($randomize ne 'no') {
	    $result.=&Apache::edit::select_arg('Location:','location',
					       ['random','top','bottom'],$token);
	}
	$result.=&Apache::edit::end_row().&Apache::edit::start_spanning_row();
    } elsif ($target eq 'modified') {
	my $constructtag=&Apache::edit::get_new_args($token,$parstack,
						     $safeeval,'value','name',
						     'location');
	if ($constructtag) { $result = &Apache::edit::rebuild_tag($token); }
    } 
    return $result;
}

sub end_foil {
    my ($target,$token,$tagstack,$parstack,$parser,$safeeval,$style)=@_;
    my $text='';
    if ($target eq 'web' || $target eq 'tex' || $target eq 'analyze') {
	$text=&Apache::lonxml::endredirection;
    }
    if ($target eq 'web' || $target eq 'grade' || $target eq 'answer'
	|| $target eq 'tex' || $target eq 'analyze') {
	my $value = &Apache::lonxml::get_param('value',$parstack,$safeeval);
	if ($value ne 'unused') {
	    my $name = &Apache::lonxml::get_param('name',$parstack,$safeeval);
	    if ($name eq "") {
		&Apache::lonxml::warning(&mt('Foils without names exist. This can cause problems to malfunction.'));
		$name=$Apache::lonxml::curdepth;
	    }
	    if (defined($Apache::response::foilnames{$name})) {
		&Apache::lonxml::error(&mt('Foil name [_1] appears more than once. Foil names need to be unique.','<b><tt>'.$name.'</tt></b>'));
	    }
	    $Apache::response::foilnames{$name}++;
	    my $location =&Apache::lonxml::get_param('location',$parstack,
						     $safeeval);
	    if ( $Apache::radiobuttonresponse::conceptgroup
		 && !&Apache::response::showallfoils() ) {
		push @{ $Apache::response::conceptgroup{'names'} }, $name;
		$Apache::response::conceptgroup{"$name.value"} = $value;
		$Apache::response::conceptgroup{"$name.text"} = $text;	
		$Apache::response::conceptgroup{"$name.location"} = $location;
	    } else {
		push @{ $Apache::response::foilgroup{'names'} }, $name;
		$Apache::response::foilgroup{"$name.value"} = $value;
		$Apache::response::foilgroup{"$name.text"} = $text;
		$Apache::response::foilgroup{"$name.location"} = $location;
	    }
	}
    }
    return '';
}

sub insert_foil {
    return '
<foil name="" value="unused">
<startouttext />
<endouttext />
</foil>';
}

1;
__END__



=head1 NAME

Apache::radiobuttonresponse

=head1 SYNOPSIS

Handles multiple-choice style responses.

This is part of the LearningOnline Network with CAPA project
described at http://www.lon-capa.org.

=head1 SUBROUTINES

=over

=item start_radiobuttonresponse()

=item bubble_line_count()

=item end_radiobuttonresponse()

=item start_foilgroup()

=item storesurvey()

=item grade_response()

=item end_foilgroup()

=item getfoilcounts()

=item format_prior_answer()

=item displayallfoils()

=item &whichfoils($max,$randomize)

Randomizes the list of foils.
Respects
  - each foils desire to be randomized
  - the existance of Concept groups of foils (select 1 foil from each)
  - and selects a single correct statement from all possilble true statments
  - and limits it to a toal of $max foils

WARNING: this routine uses the random number generator, it should only
be called once per target, otherwise it can cause randomness changes in
homework problems.

Arguments
  $max - maximum number of foils to select (including the true one)
         (so a max of 5 is: 1 true, 4 false)

  $randomize - whether to randomize the listing of foils, by default
               will randomize, only if randomize is 'no' will it not

Returns
  $answer - location in the array of the correct answer
  @foils  - array of foil names in to display order

=item displayfoils()

=item displayallanswers()

=item displayanswers()

=item start_conceptgroup()

=item end_conceptgroup()

=item insert_conceptgroup()

=item start_foil()

=item end_foil()

=item insert_foil()

=back

=cut
 

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