File:  [LON-CAPA] / nsdl / harvestsmete / cstc-111.xml
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Thu May 8 16:37:31 2003 UTC (19 years ago) by www
Branches: MAIN
CVS tags: HEAD
SMETE side harvest code for LON-CAPA

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

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<responseDate>2002-05-06T19:08:51-05:00</responseDate>
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<datestamp>1999-06-20</datestamp>
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      <catalogentry>
         <catalogue>CSTC</catalogue>
         <entry><langstring lang="en">60</langstring></entry>
      </catalogentry>
      <language>English</language>
      <description><langstring lang="en"> This tool uses JavaScript to implement a number system conversion tool that can be used to teach the concepts of different number systems as part of an introductory math or computer science course. Users can convert numbers from decimal to another base, and from other bases to decimal, and the conversion process is explained.
There is also a quiz feature which allows students to test their ability to convert numbers on their own.</langstring></description>
      <keywords>
         <langstring lang="en">
         number system
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         <langstring lang="en">
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         <langstring lang="en">
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         <langstring lang="en">
         hexadecimal
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            <vcard>
BEGIN:vCard
FN:Chaya Gurwitz
N:Gurwitz;Chaya
EMAIL;INTERNET:gurwitz@sci.brooklyn.cuny.edu
END:vCard
</vcard>
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         <date>
            <datetime>1999-06-20</datetime>
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      <contribute>
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            <vcard>
BEGIN:vCard
FN:Chaya Gurwitz
N:Gurwitz;Chaya
EMAIL;INTERNET:gurwitz@sci.brooklyn.cuny.edu
ORG:Brooklyn College;Computer and Information Science
END:vCard
</vcard>
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         <date>
            <datetime>1999-06-20</datetime>
         </date>
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      <language>en-US</language>
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      <location type="URI">
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      <requirements>
         <type><langstring lang="en">Platform</langstring></type>
         <name><langstring lang="en">HTML Browser</langstring></name>
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   </technical>
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      <intendedenduserrole><langstring lang="en">Learner</langstring></intendedenduserrole>
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            <entry><langstring lang="en">Hardware</langstring></entry>
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<header>
<identifier>oai:CSTC:4</identifier>
<datestamp>2001-09-06</datestamp>
</header>
<metadata>
<record xmlns="http://www.imsproject.org/metadata/" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.imsproject.org/metadata/ http://oai.dlib.vt.edu/OAI/ims.xsd">
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      <title><langstring lang="en">HSU CIS 492 - Project for a Senior-level Team Database Programming Course (a CIS senior capstone course)</langstring></title>
      <catalogentry>
         <catalogue>CSTC</catalogue>
         <entry><langstring lang="en">4</langstring></entry>
      </catalogentry>
      <language>English</language>
      <description><langstring lang="en"> This is a senior project for a senior-level Computer Information Systems capstone course. It is a team project, writing a large database project using Oracle.</langstring></description>
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         <langstring lang="en">
         team programming project
         </langstring>
         <langstring lang="en">
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         <langstring lang="en">
         software engineering
         </langstring>
         <langstring lang="en">
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BEGIN:vCard
FN:Sharon Tuttle
N:Tuttle;Sharon
EMAIL;INTERNET:st10@axe.humboldt.edu
END:vCard
</vcard>
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         <date>
            <datetime>2001-09-06</datetime>
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            <vcard>
BEGIN:vCard
FN:Sharon Tuttle
N:Tuttle;Sharon
EMAIL;INTERNET:st10@axe.humboldt.edu
ORG:Humboldt State University;Computing Science
END:vCard
</vcard>
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         <date>
            <datetime>2001-09-06</datetime>
         </date>
      </contribute>
      <language>en-US</language>
   </metametadata>
   <technical>
      <format>text/html</format>
      <location type="URI">
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            <entry><langstring lang="en">Database and Information Retrieval</langstring></entry>
         </taxon>
      </taxonpath>
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            <entry><langstring lang="en">Software Methodology and Engineering</langstring></entry>
         </taxon>
      </taxonpath>
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   </classification>
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         <taxon>
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         </taxon>
         <taxon>
            <entry><langstring lang="en">Software Engineering</langstring></entry>
         </taxon>
      </taxonpath>
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   </classification>
   <classification>
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      <taxonpath>
         <source>ACM Computing Classification System</source>
         <taxon>
            <entry><langstring lang="en">Software</langstring></entry>
         </taxon>
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            <entry><langstring lang="en">Miscellaneous</langstring></entry>
         </taxon>
      </taxonpath>
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            <entry><langstring lang="en">Information Systems</langstring></entry>
         </taxon>
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            <entry><langstring lang="en">Miscellaneous</langstring></entry>
         </taxon>
      </taxonpath>
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<record>
<header>
<identifier>oai:CSTC:158</identifier>
<datestamp>2001-08-21</datestamp>
</header>
<metadata>
<record xmlns="http://www.imsproject.org/metadata/" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.imsproject.org/metadata/ http://oai.dlib.vt.edu/OAI/ims.xsd">
   <general>
      <title><langstring lang="en">Reusability and adaptability of interactive resources in web-based educational</langstring></title>
      <catalogentry>
         <catalogue>CSTC</catalogue>
         <entry><langstring lang="en">158</langstring></entry>
      </catalogentry>
      <language>English</language>
      <description><langstring lang="en"> The production of interactive multimedia content is in most cases an expensive task in terms of time and cost. Hence, optimizing production by exploiting the reusability of interactive multimedia elements is mandatory. Reusability can be triggered by a combination of resuable multimedia components and the appropriate use of metadata to control the components as well as their combination.
In this article, we discuss the reusability aspects of interactive multimedia content in web-based learning systems. In contrast to existing approaches, we extend a component-based architecture to build interactive multimedia visualization units with the use of metadata for reusability and customizability.
In the three-tier model, the lowest layer of the paradigm corresponds to the programmer (code reusability). The user interface of an educational visualization is located at the top layer where the interaction with the end-user (student) takes place. The educator is located between the top and the bottom layers. This medium layer allows adapting interactive multimedia content according to the needs of the user, applying a predefined set of metadata. The teacher can both adjust the level of explanation and the level of interactivity of an animation, and influence the presentation and the results of the algorithms being illustrated (program reusability). After a theoretical overview, we explain our architecture by giving an example of an application.</langstring></description>
      <keywords>
         <langstring lang="en">
         Design
         </langstring>
         <langstring lang="en">
         Theory
         </langstring>
      </keywords>
   </general>
   <lifecycle>
      <status><langstring lang="en">Final</langstring></status>
      <contribute>
         <role><langstring lang="en">Author</langstring></role>
         <centity>
            <vcard>
BEGIN:vCard
FN:Abdulmotaleb El Saddik
N:El Saddik;Abdulmotaleb
EMAIL;INTERNET:-
END:vCard
</vcard>
         </centity>
         <date>
            <datetime>2001-08-21</datetime>
         </date>
      </contribute>
      <contribute>
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         <centity>
            <vcard>
BEGIN:vCard
FN:Stephan Fischer
N:Fischer;Stephan
EMAIL;INTERNET:-
END:vCard
</vcard>
         </centity>
         <date>
            <datetime>2001-08-21</datetime>
         </date>
      </contribute>
      <contribute>
         <role><langstring lang="en">Author</langstring></role>
         <centity>
            <vcard>
BEGIN:vCard
FN:Ralf Steinmetz
N:Steinmetz;Ralf
EMAIL;INTERNET:-
END:vCard
</vcard>
         </centity>
         <date>
            <datetime>2001-08-21</datetime>
         </date>
      </contribute>
   </lifecycle>
   <metametadata>
      <contribute>
         <role><langstring lang="en">Contributor</langstring></role>
         <centity>
            <vcard>
BEGIN:vCard
FN:Hussein Suleman
N:Suleman;Hussein
EMAIL;INTERNET:hussein@vt.edu
ORG:;
END:vCard
</vcard>
         </centity>
         <date>
            <datetime>2001-08-21</datetime>
         </date>
      </contribute>
      <language>en-US</language>
   </metametadata>
   <technical>
      <format>text/html</format>
      <location type="URI">
      http://www.cstc.org/cgi-bin/show_abstract.pl?type=official&amp;number=158
      </location>
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      <intendedenduserrole><langstring lang="en">Learner</langstring></intendedenduserrole>
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      <learningcontext><langstring lang="en">Secondary Education</langstring></learningcontext>
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      <description><langstring lang="en"></langstring></description>
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      <taxonpath>
         <source>ACM Computer Science Curriculum</source>
         <taxon>
            <entry><langstring lang="en">Software Methodology and Engineering</langstring></entry>
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         <taxon>
            <entry><langstring lang="en">Information Systems</langstring></entry>
         </taxon>
         <taxon>
            <entry><langstring lang="en">Information Interfaces and Presentation</langstring></entry>
         </taxon>
      </taxonpath>
      <description><langstring lang="en">The subject classification that best describes the resource</langstring></description>
   </classification>
   <classification>
      <purpose><langstring lang="en">Discipline</langstring></purpose>
      <taxonpath>
         <source>ACM Computing Classification System</source>
         <taxon>
            <entry><langstring lang="en">Computing Milieux</langstring></entry>
         </taxon>
         <taxon>
            <entry><langstring lang="en">Computers and Education</langstring></entry>
         </taxon>
      </taxonpath>
      <description><langstring lang="en">The subject classification that best describes the resource</langstring></description>
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</record>
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<record>
<header>
<identifier>oai:CSTC:103</identifier>
<datestamp>2001-09-06</datestamp>
</header>
<metadata>
<record xmlns="http://www.imsproject.org/metadata/" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.imsproject.org/metadata/ http://oai.dlib.vt.edu/OAI/ims.xsd">
   <general>
      <title><langstring lang="en">Turing Machine Applet</langstring></title>
      <catalogentry>
         <catalogue>CSTC</catalogue>
         <entry><langstring lang="en">103</langstring></entry>
      </catalogentry>
      <description><langstring lang="en"> The following Java applet animates a Turing Machine that can add or multiply numbers. The animation shows the flow of events in the calculation (the writing and reading of symbols on an endless tape) and the decision rules used to process each step in the calculation.</langstring></description>
      <keywords>
         <langstring lang="en">
         turing
         </langstring>
         <langstring lang="en">
         machine
         </langstring>
         <langstring lang="en">
         addition
         </langstring>
         <langstring lang="en">
         multiplication
         </langstring>
      </keywords>
   </general>
   <lifecycle>
      <status><langstring lang="en">Final</langstring></status>
      <contribute>
         <role><langstring lang="en">Author</langstring></role>
         <centity>
            <vcard>
BEGIN:vCard
FN:Alan Sommerer
N:Sommerer;Alan
EMAIL;INTERNET:forrest@warthman.com
END:vCard
</vcard>
         </centity>
         <date>
            <datetime>2001-09-06</datetime>
         </date>
      </contribute>
      <contribute>
         <role><langstring lang="en">Author</langstring></role>
         <centity>
            <vcard>
BEGIN:vCard
FN:Forrest Warthman
N:Warthman;Forrest
EMAIL;INTERNET:forrest@warthman.com
END:vCard
</vcard>
         </centity>
         <date>
            <datetime>2001-09-06</datetime>
         </date>
      </contribute>
   </lifecycle>
   <metametadata>
      <contribute>
         <role><langstring lang="en">Contributor</langstring></role>
         <centity>
            <vcard>
BEGIN:vCard
FN:Vikram Narula
N:Narula;Vikram
EMAIL;INTERNET:vnarula@vt.edu
ORG:Virginia Tech;CS
END:vCard
</vcard>
         </centity>
         <date>
            <datetime>2001-09-06</datetime>
         </date>
      </contribute>
      <language>en-US</language>
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      <location type="URI">
      http://www.cstc.org/cgi-bin/show_abstract.pl?type=official&amp;number=103
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      <intendedenduserrole><langstring lang="en">Teacher</langstring></intendedenduserrole>
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      <learningcontext><langstring lang="en">Secondary Education</langstring></learningcontext>
   </educational>
   <rights>
      <copyrightandotherrestrictions><langstring lang="en">yes</langstring></copyrightandotherrestrictions>
      <description><langstring lang="en">Copyright &#169; 1996-2001 Warthman Associates. All rights reserved.</langstring></description>
   </rights>
   <classification>
      <purpose><langstring lang="en">Educational Objective</langstring></purpose>
      <taxonpath>
         <source>ACM Computer Science Curriculum</source>
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            <entry><langstring lang="en">Numerical and Symbolic Computation</langstring></entry>
         </taxon>
      </taxonpath>
      <description><langstring lang="en">The type of class that this resource is best suited for</langstring></description>
   </classification>
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      <taxonpath>
         <source>ACM Computing Classification System</source>
         <taxon>
            <entry><langstring lang="en">Theory of Computation</langstring></entry>
         </taxon>
         <taxon>
            <entry><langstring lang="en">Computation by Abstract Devices</langstring></entry>
         </taxon>
      </taxonpath>
      <description><langstring lang="en">The subject classification that best describes the resource</langstring></description>
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<record>
<header>
<identifier>oai:CSTC:52</identifier>
<datestamp>2001-08-21</datestamp>
</header>
<metadata>
<record xmlns="http://www.imsproject.org/metadata/" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.imsproject.org/metadata/ http://oai.dlib.vt.edu/OAI/ims.xsd">
   <general>
      <title><langstring lang="en">Sparse Matrix - A Case Study in Layered Abstraction</langstring></title>
      <catalogentry>
         <catalogue>CSTC</catalogue>
         <entry><langstring lang="en">52</langstring></entry>
      </catalogentry>
      <language>English</language>
      <description><langstring lang="en"> In the described laboratory assignment, the mechanism of the sparse matrix
is an array (row index) of linked lists storing only the nonzero values
within a row, together with the column index of the saved element. The
educational goals of the described lab are to (1) gain appreciation of,
and experience with, a layered approach to the implementation of a
relatively complex structure; (2) stress the distinction and separation
between the public interface (as seen by the client, or user of a class)
and the implementation; and (3) stress the importance of designing a
clear, complete, and intuitive public interface to a class.</langstring></description>
      <keywords>
         <langstring lang="en">
         data structures
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         <langstring lang="en">
         abstraction
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         <langstring lang="en">
         sparse matrix
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      </keywords>
   </general>
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      <contribute>
         <role><langstring lang="en">Author</langstring></role>
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BEGIN:vCard
FN:Thomas Hain
N:Hain;Thomas
EMAIL;INTERNET:HAIN@go.cis.usouthal.edu
END:vCard
</vcard>
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         <date>
            <datetime>2001-08-21</datetime>
         </date>
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BEGIN:vCard
FN:Thomas Hain
N:Hain;Thomas
EMAIL;INTERNET:HAIN@go.cis.usouthal.edu
ORG:University of South Alabama;School of Computer &amp; Info Sciences
END:vCard
</vcard>
         </centity>
         <date>
            <datetime>2001-08-21</datetime>
         </date>
      </contribute>
      <language>en-US</language>
   </metametadata>
   <technical>
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      <location type="URI">
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      <requirements>
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      <taxonpath>
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            <entry><langstring lang="en">Algorithms and Data Structures</langstring></entry>
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      </taxonpath>
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   <classification>
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         <langstring lang="en">
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distributed algorithms.
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and enable the user to interactively construct scenarios.
Active interactive execution is preferable in
a learning situation to passively watching an animation.
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including the Byzantine generals, mutual exclusion,
termination and snapshots.
Adding a program for another algorithm
requires only general Java programming
experience as the GUI aspects are encapsulated.</langstring></description>
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<record>
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</header>
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      </catalogentry>
      <language>English</language>
      <description><langstring lang="en"> This is the talk I gave at SIGCSE 2001 in Charlotte.</langstring></description>
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         SIGCSE luncheon talk
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         <langstring lang="en">
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         <langstring lang="en">
         CSE resources
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   </general>
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BEGIN:vCard
FN:Lillian Cassel
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END:vCard
</vcard>
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for video (Motion JPEG, H.261, H.263) are based on the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) which splits an image up into blocks of 8x8 pixels. Our applet tries to clear out the problems with the 2 dimensional DCT by invoking the "play instinct" of students: The user can chose discrete 8x8 (2-D) input values in the range 0 to 255 for the grey value of the pixels. In the
frequency domain, rulers allow to adjust the amplitudes of the different frequencies. A backward transform plots the resulting grey values from the chosen ampitudes over the initial input values. The task is to find the "correct" amplitudes in the frequency domain to recover the initial signal. Of course, we have included a solution to the problem...</langstring></description>
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         simulation
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         <langstring lang="en">
         signal processing
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         <langstring lang="en">
         2-dimensional DCT
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BEGIN:vCard
FN:Holger Wons
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</vcard>
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BEGIN:vCard
FN:Claudia Schremmer
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FN:Claudia Schremmer
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            <entry><langstring lang="en">Coding and Information Theory</langstring></entry>
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   <classification>
      <purpose><langstring lang="en">Discipline</langstring></purpose>
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            <entry><langstring lang="en">Theory of Computation</langstring></entry>
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            <entry><langstring lang="en">Miscellaneous</langstring></entry>
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      </taxonpath>
      <description><langstring lang="en">The subject classification that best describes the resource</langstring></description>
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   <classification>
      <purpose><langstring lang="en">Discipline</langstring></purpose>
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<record>
<header>
<identifier>oai:CSTC:108</identifier>
<datestamp>2001-09-06</datestamp>
</header>
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      <title><langstring lang="en">Altair Emulator</langstring></title>
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         <catalogue>CSTC</catalogue>
         <entry><langstring lang="en">108</langstring></entry>
      </catalogentry>
      <language>English</language>
      <description><langstring lang="en"> This is a very well done emulator of the Altair 8800b</langstring></description>
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         <langstring lang="en">
         Altair emulator 8800
         </langstring>
      </keywords>
   </general>
   <lifecycle>
      <status><langstring lang="en">Final</langstring></status>
      <contribute>
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BEGIN:vCard
FN:Claus Giloi
N:Giloi;Claus
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</vcard>
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BEGIN:vCard
FN:Mike Belanger
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EMAIL;INTERNET:mbelange@vt.edu
ORG:;
END:vCard
</vcard>
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</record>
<record>
<header>
<identifier>oai:CSTC:109</identifier>
<datestamp>2001-09-06</datestamp>
</header>
<metadata>
<record xmlns="http://www.imsproject.org/metadata/" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.imsproject.org/metadata/ http://oai.dlib.vt.edu/OAI/ims.xsd">
   <general>
      <title><langstring lang="en">Expression Tree Builder and Evaluator</langstring></title>
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         <catalogue>CSTC</catalogue>
         <entry><langstring lang="en">109</langstring></entry>
      </catalogentry>
      <language>English</language>
      <description><langstring lang="en"> Builds and evaluates binary expression trees</langstring></description>
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         <langstring lang="en">
         expression tree
         </langstring>
      </keywords>
   </general>
   <lifecycle>
      <status><langstring lang="en">Final</langstring></status>
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</vcard>
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            <datetime>2001-09-06</datetime>
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BEGIN:vCard
FN:Steve Hayes
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ORG:Virginia Tech;Computer Science
END:vCard
</vcard>
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         <date>
            <datetime>2001-09-06</datetime>
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      <taxonpath>
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            <entry><langstring lang="en">Numerical and Symbolic Computation</langstring></entry>
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   </classification>
   <classification>
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</record>
<record>
<header>
<identifier>oai:CSTC:110</identifier>
<datestamp>2001-09-06</datestamp>
</header>
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<record xmlns="http://www.imsproject.org/metadata/" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.imsproject.org/metadata/ http://oai.dlib.vt.edu/OAI/ims.xsd">
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      <title><langstring lang="en">EDSAC Emulator</langstring></title>
      <catalogentry>
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         <entry><langstring lang="en">110</langstring></entry>
      </catalogentry>
      <language>English</language>
      <description><langstring lang="en"> The EDSAC was the world's first stored-program computer to operate a regular computing service. Designed and built at Cambridge University, England, the EDSAC performed its first calculation on 6 May 1949.
The Edsac simulator is a faithful software evocation of the EDSAC computer as it existed in 1949-51. The user interface has all the controls and displays of the original machine, and the system includes a library of original programs, subroutines, and debugging software. The simulator is intended for use in teaching the history of computing; as a tutorial introduction to the classic "von Neumann" computer; or as an historical experience for current computer practitioners.</langstring></description>
      <keywords>
         <langstring lang="en">
         EDSAC Emulator
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      <contribute>
         <role><langstring lang="en">Author</langstring></role>
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BEGIN:vCard
FN:Martin Campbell-Kelly
N:Campbell-Kelly;Martin
EMAIL;INTERNET:mck@dcs.warwick.ac.uk
END:vCard
</vcard>
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            <datetime>2001-09-06</datetime>
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BEGIN:vCard
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ORG:;
END:vCard
</vcard>
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            <datetime>2001-09-06</datetime>
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<record>
<header>
<identifier>oai:CSTC:111</identifier>
<datestamp>2001-09-06</datestamp>
</header>
<metadata>
<record xmlns="http://www.imsproject.org/metadata/" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.imsproject.org/metadata/ http://oai.dlib.vt.edu/OAI/ims.xsd">
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      <title><langstring lang="en">Interactive Stack and Queue ADTs</langstring></title>
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         <catalogue>CSTC</catalogue>
         <entry><langstring lang="en">111</langstring></entry>
      </catalogentry>
      <language>English</language>
      <description><langstring lang="en"> Interactive stacks and queues in several implementations (array/linked)</langstring></description>
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         <langstring lang="en">
         stack
         </langstring>
         <langstring lang="en">
         queue
         </langstring>
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   </general>
   <lifecycle>
      <status><langstring lang="en">Final</langstring></status>
      <contribute>
         <role><langstring lang="en">Author</langstring></role>
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            <vcard>
BEGIN:vCard
FN:Roberto Tamassia
N:Tamassia;Roberto
EMAIL;INTERNET:rt@cs.brown.edu
END:vCard
</vcard>
         </centity>
         <date>
            <datetime>2001-09-06</datetime>
         </date>
      </contribute>
      <contribute>
         <role><langstring lang="en">Author</langstring></role>
         <centity>
            <vcard>
BEGIN:vCard
FN:Michael Goodrich
N:Goodrich;Michael
EMAIL;INTERNET:goodrich@cs.jhu.edu
END:vCard
</vcard>
         </centity>
         <date>
            <datetime>2001-09-06</datetime>
         </date>
      </contribute>
   </lifecycle>
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         <role><langstring lang="en">Contributor</langstring></role>
         <centity>
            <vcard>
BEGIN:vCard
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      <description><langstring lang="en"> The self-certifying read-only file system enables secure distribution
of public, read-only content. It is similar to anonymous FTP or the
Web, except that it serves integrity-protected content. That is, an
adversary cannot trick a user into accepting unauthentic content. The
read-only file system pushes the cost of cryptography entirely onto
clients, allowing servers to scale to many clients. To publish
content, an administrator creates off-line a signed database of a
local file system. Untrusted replicas then serve the content to
clients. We demonstrate how to use the read-only file system to
implement certificate authorities and securely distribute software.</langstring></description>
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         security
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         2001 ACM International Student Research Contest
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         <langstring lang="en">
         first Place Undergraduate
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         <langstring lang="en">
         1st Place Undergraduate
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</header>
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      <description><langstring lang="en"> Computer networks and distribute systems are characterized by highly dynamic, concurrent, and complex processes. Thus, training in this area requires great effort from both teachers and learners.
Teachers are disatisfied with available methods for presentation, explanation, and exercises, and they
are looking for better methods to support learners.
We have developed and architecture called Highly interactive simulation of algorithms and Protocols (HiSAP), consisting of a framework to build simulations and generate applets from formally specified algorithms or protocols. By modifying this specification and observing the resulting behavior, teaching and learning in a constructive manner is enabled. The framework is open to plug-in tools to show various aspects of HiSAP's behavior.
We present the results of some experiments with HiSAP at three different lectures for graduate students of distributed systems and computer networks.</langstring></description>
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         interactive learning
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END:vCard
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ORG:;
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      <title><langstring lang="en">Greetings from the guest editor</langstring></title>
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         JERIC
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FN:Hussein Suleman
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ORG:;
END:vCard
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<header>
<identifier>oai:CSTC:155</identifier>
<datestamp>2001-08-21</datestamp>
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      <title><langstring lang="en">Editorial: Introducing the ACM Journal on Educational Resources in Computing</langstring></title>
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      <description><langstring lang="en"> Introduction to first issue of JERIC</langstring></description>
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         JERIC
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</vcard>
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END:vCard
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   <general>
      <title><langstring lang="en">Empirical Study of Course Scheduling Methods</langstring></title>
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         <catalogue>CSTC</catalogue>
         <entry><langstring lang="en">148</langstring></entry>
      </catalogentry>
      <language>English</language>
      <description><langstring lang="en"> Authors: Prakash Ojha Abigail Walker Jennifer Wanner
Hope College Xavier University
Computer Science Mathematics and Computer Science
Holland MI 49423 Cincinnati OH 45207-4441
ojha@cs.hope.edu awalker@cerebro.xu.edu wanner@cerebro.xu.edu
Research advisor: Gary Lewandowski, Xavier University,
lewandow@cerebro.xu.edu
Poster Title: Empirical Study of Course Scheduling Methods
Category: Undergraduate
Extended Abstract:
Problem and Motivation
Course scheduling involves building a timetable for courses such that
the students who want to take courses can successfully take every
course they would like. There are many variations to this problem,
including inclusion of faculty constraints, room constraints, and
multiple sections. The problem is known to be NP-Complete, thus many
researchers have worked on approximation solutions to the problem.
Researchers have generally focused on one solution method, one
unique version of the problem definition, and one set of data based on
local needs. This localization of the problem has resulted in many
studies but no general consensus of the best method available.
In this study, we explore several methods from the literature on a single
definition of the problem, and on a common set of data. Our goals are
two-fold. First, we provide a problem statement, data, and a random
data generator to facilitate easy benchmarking of methods and techniques.
Second, we explore the best method for those who may be non-experts
and need to schedule courses.
Background and Related Work
While a great deal of research has been done on scheduling methods,
our study concentrates on two of the most promising efforts:
iterative improvement and linear programming. Iterative improvement
methods for scheduling including faculty constraints have been studied
in particular by Glover [3], and Chahal and DeWerra [1]. Hertz's use
of Tabu search considers many different constraints [4]; we have
adopted many of these constraints in our benchmark formulation of the
problem. Our modification to the problem and our new data provides a
different testbed for this algorithm and allows it to be compared
against other methods. Linear programming allows one to formulate an
equation for the optimal solution to the problem; practical solutions
involving this method are infrequent [2], and do not consider many of
the constraints we consider.
Approach and Uniqueness
We address the problem of comparing results from the literature in two
ways. First, we define one statement of the course scheduling problem,
involving faculty, students, and multiple sections, and adapt several of
the approaches from the literature to this problem. Thus, any comparison
of the approaches will start from the same problem definition. Second,
we provide a random data generator that generates student course
requests in such a way that an optimal solution must exist. Finally, we
have studied five methods for course scheduling in our study: A greedy
algorithm that simply schedules courses to the first available time
(results from this simple method give some idea as to the usefulness
of more complex methods), iterative improvement algorithms following a
hill-climbing philosophy and following a "random improvement" philosophy
in which a solution with a poorer evaluation may be used to continue the
search for an improved solution, linear programming, and an algorithm that
creates a bipartite matching problem for scheduling each student based on
the times available for each course requested.
Our formulation of the course scheduling problem used is as follows:
We are given information about the courses (number of sections,
faculty members teaching the course, times at which the course can be
taught), lists of desired student courses, and the number of timeslots
in which to schedule the courses. Courses are grouped into departments
and for each department we have information on how many courses from
that department may be scheduled concurrently (representing room
availability constraints). The goal of the problem is to build a
timetable and schedule for students' courses minimizing student
conflicts while satisfying constraints on faculty and room availability.
This study provides a repeatable and expandable comparison of scheduling
methods. The algorithms were tested on random data and on data from a
DIMACS benchmark for graph coloring that involves course scheduling.
The generator and benchmark data are publically available, thus other
methods can be tested on the same or very similar data.
Results and Contributions
We have developed a data generator that generates student course requests
given the description of a timetable (the number of courses in the table,
and the number of sections of each course), the section bound for each
course, and the number of schedules desired. The generator builds a random
timetable, and then generates student course requests using a backtracking
technique that ensures the student can get each course requested. Information
on which section the student would attend and the time of each course is
stripped from the data so the data appears real to the algorithms.
We conducted a study of the methods described above on thirteen sets
of randomly generated data. Each method was run five times and we used
the median to compare how close each method comes to scheduling courses
optimally. (The Linear Programming method could not be tested because
our formulation resulted in so many variables that our machines ran out
of memory.)
We have drawn the following conclusions from our empirical study. First,
the greedy algorithm is not competitive with other approximation methods,
meaning the time spent developing and using these methods is worthwhile.
Second, iterative improvement is currently the best practical method for
course scheduling when the courses have only a single section each. Third,
when courses have multiple sections each, bipartite matching is very
competitive with the iterative improvement algorithms while running much
faster.
References
[1] N. Chahal and D. deWerra. An interactive system for constructing
timetables on a PC, European Journal of Operations Research, 40, 1989, 32-37.
[2] T. Franklin, E. Jenkins, and K. Woodson. A case study in scheduling
courses, UMAP Journal, 15, no. 2, 1995, 115-122.
[3] F. Glover, Tabu Search, part 1, ORSA Journal on Computing,1,1989, 190-206.
[4] A. Hertz. Finding a feasible course schedule using tabu search,
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      <description><langstring lang="en"> &lt;p&gt;In the last few years the (semi-) automatic sequencing of course material has become an important research issue, particularly the standardization of metadata for educational resources. Sequencing can help to generate hypermedia documents which, at their best match the learner's needs. To perform (semi-) automatic course sequencing, a knowledge library as well as modular resources can be used. Both must be described by metadata.&lt;/p&gt;
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      <description><langstring lang="en"> &lt;P&gt;This article describe the use of dedicated ontology for teaching in the context of the &lt;I&gt;L&lt;/i&gt;&lt;SUP&gt;3&lt;/sup&gt; project, a national joint project for deploying further vocational education in Germany. The requirements for the open &lt;I&gt;L&lt;/i&gt;&lt;SUP&gt;3&lt;/sup&gt; learning infrastructure are presented in order to motivate our approach to metamodeling learning resources and services by using dedicated ontolgies of pedagogics and didactics. The basic concepts and parts of the pedagogical ontology are outlined, and the practical implications for several of today's problems such as authoring and design, retrieval and adaptive of training resources are illustrated. An overview of the &lt;I&gt;L&lt;/i&gt;&lt;SUP&gt;3&lt;/sup&gt; runtime architecture shows how the didactical ontology is used to deliver adaptive learning.&lt;/p&gt;</langstring></description>
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      <description><langstring lang="en"> &lt;P&gt;We used our Original Interactive Remote Instruction (IRI) system to teach scores of university classes over the past years at sites up to 300 km apart. While this system is a prototype, its use in real classes allows us to deal with crucial issues in distributed education instruction systems. We describe our motivation and vision for a reimplementation of IRI that supports synchronous and asynchronous distance education. This new version, called IRI-h (h for hetergeneous), is coded in Java and executes on several different platforms. IRI-h extends IRI both to multiple platforms and heterogeneous network experiences with the developing prototype, including preliminary performance evaluation, and also unresolved issues still to be addressed.&lt;/P&gt;</langstring></description>
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FN:C. Wild
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END:vCard
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END:vCard
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            <entry><langstring lang="en">Computer-Communication Networks</langstring></entry>
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<record>
<header>
<identifier>oai:CSTC:163</identifier>
<datestamp>2001-08-21</datestamp>
</header>
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         <catalogue>CSTC</catalogue>
         <entry><langstring lang="en">163</langstring></entry>
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      <description><langstring lang="en"> &lt;P&gt;Many educational resources and objects have been developed as Java applets or applications, which can accessed by simply downloading them from various repositories. It is often necessary to share these resources in real time, for instance when an instructor teaches remote students how to use a certain resource explains the theory behind it. We have developed some tools for this purpose that emulate a virtual classroom, and are primarily designed for synchronous sharing of resources. They enable participants to share Java objects in real time and also allow the instructor to dynamically manage the telebearing session.&lt;/P&gt;</langstring></description>
      <keywords>
         <langstring lang="en">
         Design
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      </keywords>
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            <vcard>
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END:vCard
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         <date>
            <datetime>2001-08-21</datetime>
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      <contribute>
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FN:Abdulmotaleb El Saddik
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END:vCard
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            <datetime>2001-08-21</datetime>
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         <centity>
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FN:Shervin Shirmohammadi
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END:vCard
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            <datetime>2001-08-21</datetime>
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      <location type="URI">
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            <entry><langstring lang="en">Computers and Society</langstring></entry>
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   <classification>
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         <source>ACM Computing Classification System</source>
         <taxon>
            <entry><langstring lang="en">Computing Milieux</langstring></entry>
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         <taxon>
            <entry><langstring lang="en">Computers and Education</langstring></entry>
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<record>
<header>
<identifier>oai:CSTC:170</identifier>
<datestamp>2001-11-09</datestamp>
</header>
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<record xmlns="http://www.imsproject.org/metadata/" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.imsproject.org/metadata/ http://oai.dlib.vt.edu/OAI/ims.xsd">
   <general>
      <title><langstring lang="en">Little Man Computer</langstring></title>
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         <catalogue>CSTC</catalogue>
         <entry><langstring lang="en">170</langstring></entry>
      </catalogentry>
      <language>English</language>
      <description><langstring lang="en"> A web based applet that simulates the working of a Little Man Computer, designed by Dr. Stuart Madnick</langstring></description>
      <keywords>
         <langstring lang="en">
         Little Man Computer
         </langstring>
         <langstring lang="en">
         LMC
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         <langstring lang="en">
         Hardware Concepts
         </langstring>
      </keywords>
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      <status><langstring lang="en">Final</langstring></status>
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         <role><langstring lang="en">Author</langstring></role>
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            <vcard>
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FN:Rahul Gedupudi
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         <date>
            <datetime>2001-11-09</datetime>
         </date>
      </contribute>
      <contribute>
         <role><langstring lang="en">Author</langstring></role>
         <centity>
            <vcard>
BEGIN:vCard
FN:Larry Brumbaugh
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END:vCard
</vcard>
         </centity>
         <date>
            <datetime>2001-11-09</datetime>
         </date>
      </contribute>
      <contribute>
         <role><langstring lang="en">Author</langstring></role>
         <centity>
            <vcard>
BEGIN:vCard
FN:William Yurcik
N:Yurcik;William
EMAIL;INTERNET:wjyurci@ilstu.edu
END:vCard
</vcard>
         </centity>
         <date>
            <datetime>2001-11-09</datetime>
         </date>
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         </centity>
         <date>
            <datetime>2001-11-09</datetime>
         </date>
      </contribute>
      <language>en-US</language>
   </metametadata>
   <technical>
      <format>text/html</format>
      <location type="URI">
      http://www.cstc.org/cgi-bin/show_abstract.pl?type=official&amp;number=170
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         <name><langstring lang="en">Java Virtual Machine, HTML Browser</langstring></name>
      </requirements>
      <requirements>
         <type><langstring lang="en">Operating System</langstring></type>
         <name><langstring lang="en">All</langstring></name>
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      <requirements>
         <type><langstring lang="en">Programming Language</langstring></type>
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      <taxonpath>
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         <taxon>
            <entry><langstring lang="en">Architecture Methods</langstring></entry>
         </taxon>
      </taxonpath>
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            <entry><langstring lang="en">Computer Systems Organization</langstring></entry>
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         <taxon>
            <entry><langstring lang="en">Computer System Implementation</langstring></entry>
         </taxon>
      </taxonpath>
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   </classification>
   <classification>
      <purpose><langstring lang="en">Discipline</langstring></purpose>
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         <source>ACM Computing Classification System</source>
         <taxon>
            <entry><langstring lang="en">Computer Systems Organization</langstring></entry>
         </taxon>
         <taxon>
            <entry><langstring lang="en">Processor Architectures</langstring></entry>
         </taxon>
      </taxonpath>
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   </classification>
   <classification>
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            <entry><langstring lang="en">Hardware</langstring></entry>
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         <taxon>
            <entry><langstring lang="en">Register-Transfer-Level Implementation</langstring></entry>
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<record>
<header>
<identifier>oai:CSTC:180</identifier>
<datestamp>2001-10-30</datestamp>
</header>
<metadata>
<record xmlns="http://www.imsproject.org/metadata/" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.imsproject.org/metadata/ http://oai.dlib.vt.edu/OAI/ims.xsd">
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      <title><langstring lang="en">Simulation of Embedded Kernels over Pthreads</langstring></title>
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         <catalogue>CSTC</catalogue>
         <entry><langstring lang="en">180</langstring></entry>
      </catalogentry>
      <language>English</language>
      <description><langstring lang="en"> This work describes the design and implementation of a simulation
environment for an open-source embedded kernel and an intuitive
user interface to complement it. The study stresses the suitability of
POSIX Threads (Pthreads) to resemble kernel operations in the
simulation environment. It specifies the prerequisites for using
Pthreads as a means to resemble embedded task execution and suggests an
I/O-based representation of device information. The experience gained
with a sample implementation stresses the importance of a proper match
between a Pthreads implementation and an embedded kernel. It
also shows the adequacy of both the simulation environment and a
graphical user interface to aid program development and
debugging. Furthermore, the separation of the simulation component
from the user interface provides opportunities to utilize each
component separately or even combine them with other components.
The simulation environment is publically available with further
instructions included in the appendix.</langstring></description>
      <keywords>
         <langstring lang="en">
         Embedded Systems
         </langstring>
         <langstring lang="en">
         Operating Systems Kernel Simulator
         </langstring>
      </keywords>
   </general>
   <lifecycle>
      <status><langstring lang="en">Final</langstring></status>
      <contribute>
         <role><langstring lang="en">Author</langstring></role>
         <centity>
            <vcard>
BEGIN:vCard
FN:Frank Mueller
N:Mueller;Frank
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END:vCard
</vcard>
         </centity>
         <date>
            <datetime>2001-10-30</datetime>
         </date>
      </contribute>
      <contribute>
         <role><langstring lang="en">Author</langstring></role>
         <centity>
            <vcard>
BEGIN:vCard
FN:Oliver Buehn
N:Buehn;Oliver
EMAIL;INTERNET:oli@dtgroup.com
END:vCard
</vcard>
         </centity>
         <date>
            <datetime>2001-10-30</datetime>
         </date>
      </contribute>
      <contribute>
         <role><langstring lang="en">Author</langstring></role>
         <centity>
            <vcard>
BEGIN:vCard
FN:Thomas Roeblitz
N:Roeblitz;Thomas
EMAIL;INTERNET:roeblitz@zib.de
END:vCard
</vcard>
         </centity>
         <date>
            <datetime>2001-10-30</datetime>
         </date>
      </contribute>
   </lifecycle>
   <metametadata>
      <contribute>
         <role><langstring lang="en">Contributor</langstring></role>
         <centity>
            <vcard>
BEGIN:vCard
FN:Frank Mueller
N:Mueller;Frank
EMAIL;INTERNET:mueller@cs.ncsu.edu
ORG:North Carolina State University;Department of Computer Science
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         </centity>
         <date>
            <datetime>2001-10-30</datetime>
         </date>
      </contribute>
      <language>en-US</language>
   </metametadata>
   <technical>
      <format>text/html</format>
      <location type="URI">
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      <requirements>
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         <name><langstring lang="en">Sun Sparc, PC, Java Virtual Machine</langstring></name>
      </requirements>
      <requirements>
         <type><langstring lang="en">Operating System</langstring></type>
         <name><langstring lang="en">UNIX</langstring></name>
      </requirements>
      <requirements>
         <type><langstring lang="en">Programming Language</langstring></type>
         <name><langstring lang="en">PERL, Java, C</langstring></name>
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      </taxonpath>
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         <taxon>
            <entry><langstring lang="en">Software</langstring></entry>
         </taxon>
         <taxon>
            <entry><langstring lang="en">Operating Systems</langstring></entry>
         </taxon>
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   <classification>
      <purpose><langstring lang="en">Discipline</langstring></purpose>
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         <taxon>
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      </taxonpath>
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</record>
<record>
<header>
<identifier>oai:CSTC:190</identifier>
<datestamp>2001-12-24</datestamp>
</header>
<metadata>
<record xmlns="http://www.imsproject.org/metadata/" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.imsproject.org/metadata/ http://oai.dlib.vt.edu/OAI/ims.xsd">
   <general>
      <title><langstring lang="en">The Knob &amp; Switch Computer: A Computer Architecture Simulator for Introductory Computer Science</langstring></title>
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         <catalogue>CSTC</catalogue>
         <entry><langstring lang="en">190</langstring></entry>
      </catalogentry>
      <language>English</language>
      <description><langstring lang="en"> This paper describes the Knob &amp; Switch Computer simulator that can be used to teach Computer Organization in a breadth-based introductory CS course.</langstring></description>
      <keywords>
         <langstring lang="en">
         Knob &amp; Switch Computer
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         <langstring lang="en">
         Architecutre Simulator
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         <langstring lang="en">
         Introductory Computer Science
         </langstring>
         <langstring lang="en">
         HTML
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         <langstring lang="en">
         JavaScript
         </langstring>
      </keywords>
   </general>
   <lifecycle>
      <status><langstring lang="en">Final</langstring></status>
      <contribute>
         <role><langstring lang="en">Author</langstring></role>
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            <vcard>
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N:Reed;David
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user and software requirements is paramount. This is especially true for consistency
control in file systems. Existing DFSs usually implement a single general-purpose
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possibilities that can arise due to heterogeneity and variability of current computing
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Microsoft .NET implementation.</langstring></description>
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         distributed file system
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<datestamp>2002-03-20</datestamp>
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      <title><langstring lang="en">Java IDEs: What and Why We Use What We Do</langstring></title>
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         <entry><langstring lang="en">248</langstring></entry>
      </catalogentry>
      <description><langstring lang="en"> The experiences of several faculty who each use a different Java Interactive Development Environment (IDE). Highlights of salient features and pointers for successful adaptation to the classroom. Panel participants: Barbara Boucher Owens, Delia Marx, Jack Rehder, Dean Sanders, and Don Slater (for Rich Pattis).</langstring></description>
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         <langstring lang="en">
         JAVA IDE
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BEGIN:vCard
FN:Delia Marx
N:Marx;Delia
EMAIL;INTERNET:DMarx@Mercy.edu
END:vCard
</vcard>
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         <date>
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         </date>
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BEGIN:vCard
FN:Barbara Boucher Owens
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BEGIN:vCard
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EMAIL;INTERNET:knox@tcnj.edu
ORG:;
END:vCard
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         </date>
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            <entry><langstring lang="en">Software</langstring></entry>
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<record>
<header>
<identifier>oai:CSTC:249</identifier>
<datestamp>2002-04-15</datestamp>
</header>
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      <title><langstring lang="en">V-VIS: New Methods of Passive Information Grouping in a Classroom Tool for Low Vision Students</langstring></title>
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         <catalogue>CSTC</catalogue>
         <entry><langstring lang="en">249</langstring></entry>
      </catalogentry>
      <language>English</language>
      <description><langstring lang="en"> Mobile computing devices now make it possible to develop low-cost, portable assistive technology. The current lack of satisfactory technology to aid visually impaired students drives our development of a handheld-based viewer for Visually Impaired Students (v-VIS) designed to assist in note taking. v-VIS is a real-time viewer and recording system for professor's notes written on an electronic blackboard. The interface integrates magnification and high-contrast color schemes, enabling students to view the transcribed information in real-time. However, the large e-blackboard transmitting visual information to a small-screened handheld creates a screen-mapping problem for which two solutions have been designed and compared objectively.</langstring></description>
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         low-vision
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         <langstring lang="en">
         vision impairments
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         AutoScroll
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         <langstring lang="en">
         v-VIS
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         <langstring lang="en">
         DEBBIE
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         <langstring lang="en">
         Windows CE
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         <langstring lang="en">
         mobile
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         <langstring lang="en">
         assistive technology
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         magnification
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BEGIN:vCard
FN:Ben Betz
N:Betz;Ben
EMAIL;INTERNET:bbetz@depauw.edu
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         <type><langstring lang="en">Operating System</langstring></type>
         <name><langstring lang="en">Mac OS, Windows 95/98, Windows NT, Windows CE, </langstring></name>
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